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Issue 21 1 Apr 2009 


Blender learning made easy 











ll MM 

Using Blender to Animate Your Family Pho 

Product Visualizat 




' by Reynante 


ystery of The BLEND 




Gaurav Nawani %aurav@blenderart.or% 


Sandra Gilbert sandra@blenderart.or% 


Nam Pham 


Gaurav, Sandra, Alex 


Kevin Braun 
Phillip Ryals 
Bruce Westfall 
Joshua Leung 
Lynda Schemansky 
Eric Pranausk 
Noah Summers 
Joshua Scotton 
Mark Warren 
Wade Bick 
Patrick O'Donnell 
Brian C. Treacy 
Scott Hill 
Henriel Veldtmann 


Byron R. Kindig 
Valentin Spirik 
Claas Kuhnen 
Benjamin Schram 
Yap Chun Fei 
Robert Burke 

Giancarlo Ng 
Paul Fitzpatrick 
Ken Beyer 
SciVis IFC - CNR 
Jeroen Bakker 
Troy James Sobotka 


Breathe - By Reynante 

Tutorial - Using Blender to Animate Your Family Photos 

Tutorial - Editing A Music Video in Blender 

Tutorial - Product Visualization 

Making - Game Art for Project Aftershock 

Making - Cri( 

cket and Friends See a Comet! 


Making - Modelling and Rigging a Mechanical Model 


^^^H 5? 

1 21 



Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 


So if you have been feeling stuck in 
a creative rut or would just like to 
explore a new idea, just sit back 
and learn what others have been 
up to.. 


ver the last four years, we have explored 
and focused on various tips, techniques, 
tools and features of Blender. 

And while we have covered various projects and 
artists over the years, the focus has tended to- 
ward "how" they did things. The "what" and 
"why" of their projects, assumed somewhat of a 
secondary nature. 

When we picked the theme for this issue, I 
thought it would be a nice change of pace to see 
what the community at large is up to. 

And we discovered that they are busy with a diz- 
zying array of fun and interesting projects, that 
they were all too happy to share with the rest of 

So if you have been feeling stuck in a creative 
rut or would just like to explore a new idea, just 
sit back and learn what others have been up to. 
Their creative uses for Blender are bound to 
spark a creative idea or two. 

Have Fun! 


Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

IZZY SPEAKS : Lessons on What Not to Do 


Sometimes the most valuable lessons you can learn, 
fall under the category of "What not to do". And 
here, recently, I learned several (read that to be 
MANY) painful, yet valuable lessons about anima- 

Armed with copies of ManCandy FAQs, Intro to Char- 
acter Animation and Animating with Blender, I de- 
cided I was ready to attempt my first original 
character animation. (Yeah, that was probably my 
first mistake, over-confidence.) 

Okay, so it seems there are three stages to creating 
an animation: 

• Pre-production (Planning) 

• Production (Do-it) 

• Post production (Polish it up and finish) 

Seems simple enough. 

I normally do the greater majority of any project 
planning in my head. Little did I know that this 
would be just the beginning of my "What not to do" 

After a few weeks of serious mental planning, I de- 
cided I was ready to start. Because I rarely write 
down more than a few notes about a planned 
project, first thing I actually did was design and 
model my characters. Now that in and of itself 
wasn't that much of a show-stopper. At that point, I 
could still have gone back and written a script, done 
storyboards and created the animatic. 

Instead, I started creating my set. Now, I only in- 
tended to create a rough set, then I was going to get 
on with the whole "script/storyboard" thing. But 
well one thing led to another and before I knew it 
the set was built, textured and lit appropriately. 

About this time, it is starting to dawn on me that I 
might really need the script and story boards. But I 
had planned a really simple story line, so I started 
rigging my characters instead. After several mis-tries, 
I got my characters adequately rigged. They weren't 
amazing rigs, but they did what I wanted. Which re- 
ally is kind of the whole point. 

Now, back to that dang script and story board. Well, 
I did finally write a short script and started making 
some storyboards. I ended up drawing a grand total 
of seven storyboards. 

That should be enough, right? :P 

Now, on to animating. I only need my characters to 
actually walk a very short distance. So first I tried 
manually keying my characters walking about the 
scene. But even when I drew out a path (with the 
grease pencil) they looked like drunken sailors 
careening about the scene. After numerous failed 
attempts to get my characters to behave, I did some 
research and moved on to creating a repeating walk 
cycle and then had my character follow a curve 
through the scene. 

WOW!, that looked great. Okay a little on the stiff 
side, but better than the drunken sailor look. I might 
just be a little good at this :P. Besides I can always 
polish it up later. 

v ay o 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

IZZY SPEAKS : Lessons on What Not to Do 

So next, I merrily moved on to creating some other 
simple actions. Armed with my additional actions, I 
pulled up some tutorials on the NLA editor and pre- 
pared to combine and layer my actions for my ani- 
mation. It was time to put this thing together. 

Yeah that didn't work out so well. Every time I added 
a new action to one of my characters, it "teleported" 
to a completely un-related spot in the scene. Some- 
thing was seriously wrong and or my project was 

After many lengthy sessions filled with muttering of 
choice naughty words, I finally did get things to co- 
operate (kind of). But in the process, I managed to 
miss my deadline. Then of course, life interfered and 
my project got put temporarily on hold. 

But even though I wasn't actively working on it, I 
was still obsessing about it. It took a few weeks, but 
the epiphany finally hit (Yeah, I'm a little slow, it's 
not like Roland didn't warn about these very types of 
problems in just about every chapter of his book). 

My problems all stemmed from lack of proper plan- 
ning (okay and maybe a few "lack of knowledge" 
problems, but I actually figured those out on my 

If I had taken the time to go through pre-production 
properly, a lot of the problems I ran into could have 
been avoided. Creating a proper storyboard and ani- 
matic would have helped me block out my actions 
better (no drunken sailor walks). And, probably even 
more important, breaking it up into several shots 
would probably have eliminated most of the random 
character "teleportation" problems I ran into while 
combining my actions. 

Elimination of those problems would have saved me 
time. I might even have had enough time to finish by 
my deadline. 

Oh well, at least I have learned the importance of 
good pre-production. 

Well that's all for now, I still have an animation to 
finish, so I should get back to it :P ■ 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 


Blender Conference 2009, 
23-25 October Amsterdam 

The 8th annual Blender Conference in Amsterdam 
will tentatively take place at a new location: the 
former 19th century court building " De Balie ". Right 
in the center of Amsterdam on the Leidseplein . this 
grand cafe / theatre / cinema, sits nestled in the 
heart of Amsterdam's music, theatre and clubbing 


•centrum voar cultuu r en pclitiek centre for culture and pc lilies 

Due to the increasing number of attendees, a bigger 
place was needed. The De Balie offers a cinema / the- 
atre with 160 seats, the smaller "Salon" with 50 
seats, and sufficient informal space to meet, relax 
and lunch in our own grand cafe. 

De Balie offers great multi-camera streaming servic- 
es, and stores most talks on their servers for later 

Call for participation 

Deadline for paper / presentation / workshop submis- 
sions: August l. 

As usual we welcome Blender developers, artists, 
educators, professionals, scientists, to present work 
they've completed with Blender, to show great new 
ideas for Blender or propose to do round-table dis- 
cussions, workshops, demos or courses. 

Needless to say, special attention will go to the re- 
sults of the Blender 2.5x project. 

Submission details will be posted in May. 

Suzanne Award Festival 

"De Balie" has a real cin- 
ema with excellent projec- 
tion facilities. We seek 
submissions this year to 
assemble a great 90 minute 
Short Film festival, which 
will run on three evenings, 
also for non-conference 

Deadline for Festival sub- 
missions: September 15. 

Submission details will be 
posted later. 

Parallel sessions / conferences 

In past years we've had parallel sessions organized 
by Blender community members in many cities 
world wide. If you like to organize a day (or two), 
contact ton at! 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 




2.49: One More Version Before 2.5 

Ton Roosendaal writes: 

On popular request (users banging on our doors!), 
but mostly because current sources have seen much 
improvements, we challenge fate by releasing the 
very last available number before 2.50. 

On Blenderartists a contest for the splash already 
started: php?t=is 

Features of 2.49 include: 

• Video Textures in Game Engine 

• Logic API cleanup for Game Engin e 

• Texture node editing 

• Etch-a-ton, armature sketching preview 

• Dome rendering for Game Engine 

• Projection texture painting 
•Jpeg2000 support in sequencer 

• NewGE actuators 

Most of the branches remain 'branch' for the time 
being. So no volumetrics, no BMesh, no new Nurbs, 
no Freestyle, although all these progress well. Dome 
rendering for the GE we look at to include though. 


We are currently testing the first Release Candidate 
for 2.49. ■ 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Using Blender to Animate Your Family Photos 



The other day I was looking through 
some of the old family photos. Many of 
the people I have not met, or really even 
know who they are, except for a few 
notes that were hand written on the 
back of the pictures. I got to thinking 
about how I might animate them using 
Blender, and that is how this tutorial 
came about. 

In this tutorial you will learn how to : 

• Use a background image for modeling 

• UV texture map a simple object 

• Set up Shape Keys 

• Animate Shape Keys 

This is the picture I decided to 
use, but of course you can use 
one of your own family pho- 
tos. If it is not in a digital for- 
mat you will have to scan it 
and save it to a resolution of 
about 500 to 800 pixels in the 
longest direction. 

After deciding on an image, 
open up Blender and open up the image in the back- 
ground. To open a background image, in the 3D 
view port footer (or header) click the "View" » 
"Background image" » "Use Background image" 
»"Load." Find and select the image you want to use 
in the resulting menu, then click "SELECT IMAGE" at 
the top of the menu. 

It may not appear immediately. If not, be sure you 
are in a direct view such as front, top or side. Re- 
member the final object is a flat 2 dimensional plane 
like the photo you are animating, so you only need 
one 3D view. I used the front view. 

Add a Plane to your scene with [Spacebar] » Add » 
Mesh » Plane. Toggle to Wire Frame view with the 
[Z] key so that you can see your Background Image. 

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In Edit mode, move the corner 
vertices to match the corners 
of your background photo- 
graph. You can deselect all the 
vertices with the A key, then 
use the B key to border select 
the top 2 and the [G] » [Z] keys 
to constrain the movement to 
the Z direction. Then "Swap 
Select," [Ctrl + I] then [G] then 
[Z] again to move the others to 
the bottom of the photo back- 
ground image. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Using Blender to Animate Your Family Photos 

Border select the left vertices, 
press the [G] and the [X] and move 
them to the left side of the photo 
background image, and then 
swap select, [Ctrl + I] and move 
the right hand side of the back- 
ground image. 

The next step is where we will 
create the vertices that will out- 
line the facial features that we 
will animate. This can be done 
in lots of ways, but basically you 
will have to create loops of edges 
around the eyes and mouth. You 
can then extrude these edge 
loops to cover larger areas of the 
face and then fill in the faces to 
make sure the entire plane is 
filled with faces. 

Start by adding a set of Loop cuts 
around the edges of the plane to 
cut out some of the non-ani- 
mated area around the head and 
body. [Ctrl + R] >>, LMB Slide and 
LMB. Then delete the face inside 
this border area by selecting it in 
face select mode and pressing 
[X]» "Face Only". 

Still in edit mode, but changing back to vertex select 
mode, add a circle with 10 vertices for the loop around 
the eyes. Scale it down close to the size of the eye and 
move it to the area near the eye. Zoom in so you can 
see what you are doing with the middle mouse wheel. 
Then move the individual vertices of the circle to the 
corners of the eye, and to follow the outline of the eye. 

Once you are satisfied, duplicate the circle by selecting 
one vertex of the circle, [L] » [Shift + D] and move it to 
the area around the other eye on the photograph, then 
adjust the vertices to fit the second eye. Then select the 
upper vertices of the upper eye lid and extrude [E] » 
Only Edges and scale the vertices on the top of each eye 
upward to just under the eye brow and again to just 
over the eye brow. 

Un-select all the vertices with the A key once or twice 
and then [Ctrl+LMB] click on the center of the upper lip, 
to add a new vertex to the mesh. Continue to [Ctrl + 
LMB] click around the mouth to make a full circle 
around the lips. Then add the vertices in the middle 
where the lips come together and fill with faces by se- 
lecting 4 vertices or 2 edges and pressing the F key. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Using Blender to Animate Your Family Photos 


Continue to extrude 
and shape these edges 
and fill in the faces. 

Fill in the faces in the holes left 
in the areas where the eyes are. 
Select each pair of upper and 
lower eye lid edges and press 
the [F]. 

Now return to solid view by 
toggling the Z key. If you notice 
some of the faces are shaded 
strangely, like this. 

Loop cut the longer 
edges and arrange the 
vertices, until the area 
is filled. 

It should look similar 
to this. 

Then you will need to recalcu- 
late the normals outside by 
selecting all the vertices and 
pressing the Ctrl + N key. It 
should then look something 
like this. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Using Blender to Animate Your Family Photos 


Next split your screen and add a UV image editor win- 
dow on the side. With all the vertices still selected and 
the mouse in the 3D view port window, press the U key 
and select the "Project from view (Bounds)" option. It 
will look stretched out from side to side, but don't 
worry about that now. 

As soon as you open the image from the menu it will 
snap to the right dimensions. 

the shader buttons Map Input panel, change "Oreo" to 
"UV." In the Material panel, select "TexFace" and in the 
Shader panel, move the Specular slider down to 0.00. 

Change the View port Shading to Textured. You should 
see the image mapped to your mesh at this point. If 
not, check the back side by rotating your view or press- 
ing [Ctrl + NumPad l] to see the back. If it is on the 
back side, return to the front NumPad l and with all 
the vertices selected, press the "Flip Normals" button in 
the Mesh Panel of the Edit buttons. This will solve the 
problem if it exists. 

Now you can add shape keys to the plane mesh and it 
will deform your photograph that is mapped to it. 

Warning: You will not be able to add or delete any verti- 
ces from your plane mesh after the next step. 

In object mode in the edit buttons in the Shapes panel, 
press the "Add Shape Key" button. Blender will add the 
first shape key and name it "Basis." This is the only 
shape key that does not have a control slider and is the 
reference for all the other shape keys. Add another 
shape key and it will be named "Key l." We will use this 
key to close the eyes so rename it "Blink." 

Zoom into the eyes in the 3D view port window. Tab 
into edit mode again, and select each upper eyelid ver- 
tex and with the G key move each one down to its cor- 
responding lower eyelid vertex. Now return to Object 
mode with the Tab key and try out the slider for your 
newly created "Blink" shape key. Note that you can 
move the eyelids along a continuum from all the way 
open at to all the way closed at l, or anywhere in be- 

In the shader buttons add a new material and name it 
UV. Add a Texture and make the type "image." Choose 
the same background image from the menu. Back in 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Using Blender to Animate Your Family Photos 


Before adding your next 
shape key be sure to re- 
turn to object mode if you 
are not already there, and 
to the Basis key. If you 
were to add another key 
with the "Blink" key se- 
lected it would inherit the 
eyes being closed and 
since you are going to add 
a smile shape key next you 

probably don't want to have your photo close its eyes 
each time it smiles. 

So in the Object mode and with the Basis key selected 
add another shape key and name it "Smile." Return to 
edit mode and move the vertices around the mouth 
into a smile. Remember to also move the vertices at 
the corners of the eyes 
into a little bit of a 
squint and adjust the 
vertices of the cheeks 
as well. Go back to ob- 
ject mode and try it 
out. Remember if you 
are not satisfied with a 
shape key you can re- 
turn to edit mode and 
make whatever 
changes you want. 

Return to Object mode and to the "Basis" shape key 
and another shape key and name it "Wink." A wink is 
different than a blink in several ways. Most obviously, it 
only is on one side of the face. Less obviously, the lower 
eyelid goes up a little and the upper eyelid comes down 
a little instead of only the upper eyelid coming down to 
meet the stationary lower eyelid. This can be accom- 
plished by selecting the edges between the upper and 

lower eyelid vertices 
and scaling them 
down. Also the corner 
of the mouth on the 
same side raises and 
the cheek on the same 
side is deformed slight- 
ly. Even the area where 
the nose meets the 
cheek goes up a little. 

Let's add another shape key for the Left Brow Raise. Re- 
member to return to Object Mode and the "Basis" key 
and then "Add Shape Key" and name it "LBrowRaise." In 
edit mode simply adjust the position of the vertices 
around the images left eye brow. I am using the left 
because that is the side that appears closer in the im- 
age I am using. Your photo may be facing to your right 
and you may want to use the other eye and eye brow. 
This can be very subtle and still very effective. 

For the last shape key we will move down to the left 
lapel of the jacket and make another very subtle adjust- 
ment to show the movement for inhaling. 

Create a new shape key in Object mode from the 
"Basis" key and name it "Inhale." 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Using Blender to Animate Your Family Photos 


Now for the next section you will add these shapes to 
an IPO to create your animation. Make the window on 
the right into an IPO window. Make the IPO window 
type "Shape." 

set to l, and another with the frame number set to 101 
and the shape slider set back to 0. 

Right click on the Inhale curve to select it. The key 
frames will turn white. In the IPO footer click on Curve 
then Extend Mode and then Cyclic, to make the inhale 
curve repeat. We will render our animation for 300 
frames so the breathing will loop continuously. 

Unfortunately, you may notice the bottom of the curve 
where it repeats has become rather sharp and pointed 
instead of smooth as we wanted for a smooth breath- 
ing cycle. Tab into edit mode with the mouse pointer in 
the IPO window and select the 2 bottom control points 
of the curve. 

Set a key frame at frame l for the "Inhale" shape at 
on its slider. Move the frame number forward to frame 
number 51 and add another key frame with the slider 

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Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Using Blender to Animate Your Family Photos 


You can smooth the curve with [Shift + 0]. Now it is 
smoother and looks like we want 


Go to the Scene buttons (Flo) and set the end of the 
render to 300. With the mouse pointer in the 3D view 
port window, press Ctrl + A to play your animation and 
watch your photo breathe! It will loop until you press 
the Esc key. When you are done watching it press the 
Esc key and we will add some more shape IPOs. Next 
we will add the blinks into the animation. 

Return to the Edit buttons (F9) and in the Shapes panel, 
choose the "Blink" shape. Set a key frame at frame 6 
and the "Blink" slider at 0. Move forward to frame 8 
and set another key frame with the slider at l and an- 
other on at frame 10 again with the slider at 0. With 
the Blink IPO curve still selected, tab into edit mode. 
Remember to keep the mouse pointer in the IPO win- 

Select the 3 control points of the curve with the border 
select tool, [B]. Press the [Shift + D] to duplicate the 
control points and then hold down the Ctrl key to con- 
strain the duplicated key frame and control points to 
the even frame numbers and slide them over to a new 
location. Repeat this duplication for several more 
blinks during the 300 frames of the animation. Allow 
the spacing to vary as blinking is much more random 
than the breath cycle that we created earlier. 

Tab back out of edit mode (with the mouse pointer still 
in the IPO window.) Create another IPO curve for the 
Wink shape, by adding a key frame with the slider at 
another at l and a last one at again. In edit mode you 
can move the key frames forward or back to adjust the 
timing. Remember to use the [G] and [X] to move along 
the X axis of the timeline and to use [Ctrl] to constrain 
to an exact frame number. 

Do the same with the smile and the eyebrow raise 
shapes. Remember if vertices are used in more than 
one shape and the shapes are applied at the same time, 
the movement of those vertices will be added. In other 
words if a "Blink" is on the same place on the timeline 
as the "Wink" then the Winking eye's vertices may 
overshoot their mark. 

Also if you forget to hold the Ctrl key while moving the 
control points of the IPO curve and they fall in between 
frames this can cause problems. You can select the con- 
trol points, either individually or all of them with the A 
key, and use the snap menu to bring them back to 
whole frame numbers. [Shift + S ]» " To Frame". 

If you notice that the breathing is a little too exaggerat- 
ed, in edit mode, you can select the control point set to 
a slider value of l, in the IPO curve and lower its effect 
by moving it down with the G key followed by the Y key 
to constrain it to the current frame. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Using Blender to Animate Your Family Photos 


Because it is just one breath cycle, set to cyclic so all 
the other breathes will be adjusted at well. 

Next we will set up our lighting and camera. You do 
not need any shadows since you are rendering a flat 
plane with a photo that has its own shadows recorded. 
You only need one light source, a Sun lamp so that the 
Plane is evenly lit. You also don't want to have perspec- 
tive as it would only serve to distort your image. Select 
the plane and snap the 3D cursor to it [Shift + S ] »" 
Cursor to Selection." Select your camera and snap it to 
the 3D cursor, [ Shift + S ], » "Selection to Cursor." 

With the camera still selected, in side view, move the 
camera out in front of the plane with [G] » [Y] to con- 
strain the motion along the global Y axis. Press [Alt + R] 
to clear the rotation of the camera. Now rotate the 
camera 90 degrees around the X axis by pressing [R] » 
[X] and typing in the number 90, then press [Enter] or 
LMB click. 

Switch the 3D view to camera view with [Numpad 0]. 
In the Scene buttons window, (Flo) in the format panel, 
set the Size X and Size Y fields to the size and propor- 
tions you want to render your animation. I have set 
them to X=400 and Y=600, because those are the dimen- 
sions of my photo. 

Now switch back to the edit buttons. In the Lens panel 
click on "Orthographic,"and adjust the Scale field in the 
Lens panel to a size that includes your plane in the 
camera view. I have set mine to 15 but depending on 
your photo you may need to change this. 

Next render your animation. Back in the Scene buttons 
window. (Flo), check to be sure that in the Render pan- 
el, the Shadow, SS, Env M, and Ray buttons are turned 
off. You will not be using them and they will only slow 
down your render. 

Click the "ANIM" button in the Scene buttons window. 
(Flo) and wait for the resulting animation. 

I hope this has been a helpful and most of all fun ■ 


Byron R. Kindig 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Editing A Music Video in Blender 



For everything you need to get 
started with the Blender VSE see also 
the "Video Editing Preset" (and for 
making titles) the "2D Title Presets" 
.blend files bundled with this edition 
of BlenderArt Magazine. 

I load all of my footage into the 
Blender Video Sequence Editor (VSE) 
and start selecting "the good stuff": 
with the mouse over the Image Pre- 
view window. I use [Space] for 
start/stop and [Right Arrow]/ [Left Arrow] for going 
back and forth. In the timeline (= Sequence): [K] for 
Cut and [Shift S] for snap editing (shortens/extends 


li uliitii iittllH liMiiHMflN ■ H« Mii 1 


Figure 1: Selecting 

'the good stuff" 

clip to the playhead when start/end is selected). The 
"good stuff" gets moved upwards a row (= Channel) 
with [G] for Grab and [Y] for Y-Axis. I keep the uncut 
original inside a (muted) Metastrip should I need it 
later since I am working without a time-code. (You 

can use the Stamp render option for overlaying time 
information.) Then I make a back-up of the .blend. 

I move the selected clips together using [Ctrl] for 
snapping clip to clip. The white numbers on the 
right show the last frame of "the good stuff" (top), 
the music track (middle) and the unused clips etc., 
that are now also inside the muted Metastrip 

Figure 3: Selecting "the really good stuff" 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Editing A Music Video in Blender 


Same procedure as above (1: Selecting "the good stuff") 
with the mouse over the Image Preview window (top 
right) and [Space] for start/stop and [Right Arrow]/[Left 
Arrow] for going back and forth... Since I easily get real- 
time playback using DV footage (no effects applied) 
with Ubuntu 8.04 and Blender 2.48a on my PC (current 
Core 2 Duo processor, 2 GB of RAM and a reasonably 
fast 250 GB hard-drive) this work-flow allows me to 
find my in and out points while looking at moving im- 
ages the way the audience will see it... Frame 6 067 is 
now the last one after "the really good stuff" is moved 
together (that's down from 20,520 from the previous 
step). I use the Blender Text Editor for taking notes. 
Again, I make a back-up of the .blend. 

Figure 4: Sorting the clips 

I add a Text Editor window left of my Sequence and 
name/tag my tracks. I adjust the Sequence window 
with (Number Pad) [Home] and then use Middle Mouse 
Button and [Ctrl] to fit the Channels to my tagged 
tracks. Then I move "the really good stuff" clips in the 
appropriate track (for moving clips up or down without 
moving them in time I once again use [G] and [Y], for 
selecting multiple clips I use [B] for Border Select...). 

Figures: Editing the video 

I use Markers for the points where the singing starts. 
Then I move the best of the previously sorted clips to 
roughly where I need them and work on the details 
again using Shift S for snap editing and also [G] for Grab 
to shorten/extend a clip's start/end... The basic struc- 
ture for the edited video: details/close-ups at the begin- 
ning, the artists performing in the middle and a longer 
zoom out close to the end. I move the unused clips into 
Metastrips on the left. 

As before, I use (Number Pad) [Home] for seeing every- 
thing that's in the timeline. But since there are the un- 
used clips on the left now, I then select the music track 
and (Number Pad) [Dot/Del] (normally used for 
"zooming in" on a single clip) for focusing the Sequence 
window to the area that I actually want to see when 

I export the edited clip as a PNG Sequence (= series of 
.png images). (Flo (pressed multiple times) for switch- 
ing between the Sequencer buttons when editing and 
the Render buttons when exporting.) 

The annotations in the screenshot above show what's 
important for exporting/rendering. 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Editing A Music Video in Blender 


Figure 6: Through the Compositing Nodes 

I load the previously exported PNG Sequence into the 
Compositing Nodes and let it run through a series of 
filters: DV video artifacts get smoothed out and my 
own graininess/structure and artifacts get added. The 
particular filters used here may be experimental and 
only make sense for this clip, but a couple of combina- 
tions can be useful for other projects (values would 
need to be adjusted): Gauss-Darken for a toon look, 
Screen-Overlay-Mix for optimising an image, Sharpen- 
Soften for focus related compositing tasks (high values 
for Sharpen may introduce artifacts). 

The yellow and blue annotations in the screenshot 
above show what's important for processing a series of 
PNGs with the Compositing Nodes: in this set-up, navi- 
gation is possible by moving the Sequence playhead 
(the green line at frame 940) for previewing different 
parts (individual frames) of the Nodes processed video. 
I export the Nodes filtered PNGs once more as a Se- 
quence of PNGs. 

I load the Nodes processed PNGs into my VSE Sequence 
([Space] » Add Image Sequence), add and fine-tune a 
Glow (with clip selected [Space] » Add Glow), make a 

Figure 7: The final look 

Metastrip of both (with clips selected and [M] and use 
Color Balance (with clip (Metastrip) selected: Filter tab 
» Use Color Balance) for creating the basis of the yel- 
lowish (but at this point rather dark) look. I then add a 
one step Strobe (Filter tab » Strobe: 2.00). With [Shift D] 
I duplicate the Metastrip, move it up one Channel and 
also move it one frame out of sync (see screenshot). 
The Glow for this FX l track gets removed ([Tab] to 
open/close a Metastrip) and in the Edit tab I select 
Blend Mode Add and Blend: 33.00 and Use Color Bal- 
ance gets also unselected for this FX 1 track. I also du- 
plicate the FX l track, move it up one Channel and also 
move this FX 2 track out of sync for yet another frame. 
There is one last step not shown in the screenshot: a 
final, subtle Glow is applied to all strips. 

I once more export the clips as a Sequence of PNGs, 
import them one last time and change the export set- 
tings in the Render Buttons » Format tab to FFMpeg, 
make my selections for the video and audio 
format/codec and make sure that Multiplex audio is 
selected in the Audio tab before exporting the finished 
video clip with sound. 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Editing A Music Video in Blender 


Figure 6: Through the Compositing Nodes 

This is actually done somewhere before finishing the 
editing (5: Editing the video) and using my own 2D Ti- 
tles Preset .blend/tutorial. I adjust the text to the right 
size first. In order to have the Center where I need it 
for my title animation: Object » Convert Object Type... 
» Mesh. Then: Object » Transform » Center New. 

For the finished video see, for more 
about Notic Nastic see ■ 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Product Visualization 



Fast rendering times are always a 
needed and desired feature in a 

animation - is where Hypershot lacks completely 
and Blender can provide an excellent number of 

time wise very competitive envi- 
ronment like industrial design. It 
is very common today that the 
product designer only makes very 
rough renderings, which are being 2 Light-Setup: 
presented to marketing, while the 
3D rendering department or an 
outsourced service bureau is pro- 
ducing more realistic, but also 
time consuming product repre- 

What I am going to show is actually inspired by a 
free tool for Rhino 4.0 called Auxpecker, which gave 
me the idea to experiment with this approach in 
Blender with GLSL. 


For very fast and preliminary product representa- 
tions, the designer only needs to communicate ma- 
terial selection and shape to marketing. Those 
product renderings give answers as to which part of 
the product is high glossy, which part is chrome, 
what is rubber, where is maybe an interface element 
or decal. Thus an integral part of product rendering 
is the decision making about material selection. 

In the last 2 years, Hypershot has become a product 
of choice for such a task. It provides the artist with 
very fast previews and instant feedback. The pro- 
gressively refined renderings are done with global 
illumination and thus provide very fast, accurate 
and good looking product render results. 

Blender, of course, does not offer an internal full Gl 
or a fast progressive render feedback like Hypershot. 
However with Blender, we can create graphically 
stunning looking product representations, which are 
ideal for feature communication and blazing fast to 
render for animations. In particular the last one - 

While Blender does not have an internal full Gl sys- 
tem, it offers real-time shading with GLSL and very 
fast rendering Approximate Ambient Occlusion. 
GLSL, which was mainly driven through the last 
open-game project Yo- Fran ky, provides us with the 
needed technology to actually preview diffuse and 
specular material properties interacting with many 
built-in light types and can also be used with UV 
mapped and flat projected image textures. 

A great feature of GLSL is the ability to show diffuse 
and specular light shader properties in real-time, 
interacting with the present set of lights. There are 
two lights which in particular are of interest: 

• Hemi Lights - Producing a fake, but still good 
looking and fast rendering Gl effect. 

• Spot Lights - Casting buffered shadows in real- 

Other light types are: 

• Lamp Light - Producing a spherical light element 

• Sun - Producing parallel light rays 

Area lights are not supported for real time preview- 
ing, but work during rendering. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Product Visualization 


3 Material-Setup: 

To tackle the issue of evaluating a material without 
time consuming raytraced mirror reflections, we can 

actually generate pre-rendered material previews. They 
are in the shape of spheres and are mapped as a fake 
environment over the object by using the Normal Vec- 
tor map input. 

The clue is to prevent the use of any 
easy to recognize environmental mir- 
ror reflection, instead creating a stu- 
dio setup which only provides 
information about where light sources 
are and how they would illuminate 
the scene and the ball. 

I You design a simple backdrop, place a 
ball, and position the camera very 
close to the ball, trying to find a scale 
for the mesh where the mirror reflec- 
tion of the ground plane would be 
covering the lower half of the ball. 

With this setup you can add lights. 
Three area lights are sufficient. They 
are placed left, top, and right. They 
can all have different energy values, 
thus rendering the ball illuminated in 
a different and not like with AAO even 
way. To generate unique results, you 
can play with size, position, and 
strength of those lights and create 
materials where a strong light is only 
coming from top, the main light com- 
ing only from the side, or light is com- 
ng from all directions evenly. 

To make the area lights visible on a 
chrome ball, you also need to add 
light meshes. By applying correct val- 
ues for the Emit value, you can match 
the brightness of those meshes to the 
light energy of the corresponding 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Product Visualization 



By using AAO, you can darken the area between sphere 
and ground plane. An up facing area light can also 
brighten up the lower part of the sphere simulating 
indirect illumination and bouncing lights. 

If a glossy material is desired, the sphere should be us- 


Colored and Blurred 

flection value on perpendicular and tangent surfaces 
relative to the camera. 

Of course to create blurred reflections or brushed met- 
al, it is also possible to use Blender's glossy function for 
mirror reflections. However to save time, this task can 
easily be done inside Photoshop by applying a blur filter 
to the image. 

If a diffused and matte surface is 
needed, then the specular reflection 
will be used instead of raytraced mir- 
ror reflections. The energy is set low 
and the hardness value is set to very 
low to spread the specular highlight 
nicely over the object. It is also possi- 
ble to make use of Blender's subsur- 
face scattering shader to create a 
Colored and Lens Blurred more rubber lookin § material. 

ing a mirror reflection and the scene 
should have the visible light meshes be 
present. Those are being used to generate 
a specular highlight instead of using the 
specular light shader, which I turned off 
in this case. Again with the different 
amount of emit values, the reflections of 
those boards will be differently bright and 
providing a convincing studio setup. 

SSS - Raw Rendering 

Colored Photoshop Material 

For a black material, the world should 
also be set to black, darkening the mirror reflection of 
the ball. For a red ball, the world should be set to neu- 
tral gray. This way the rendered result can easily be 
coloured in Photoshop to generate quickly colored vari- 
ations of the same gray base material. 

By using the raytraced function for mirror reflection, 
you can also make use of Fresnel to customize the re- 

Also pay attention to the design of the scene and how 
the backdrop itself is part of the reflection. Scale of the 
sphere and reflection of the environment can have a 
significant impact on how light, shadow, and reflec- 
tions are rendered and thus forming the material char- 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Product Visualization 


Surface Quality: 

To analyze the geometry and surface quality, in particu 
lar for sharp edges, uneven elements, or how a high- 
light is broken over an 
edge, it is also possible 
to map an environmen- 
tal image or a zebra 
image over your object. 

The Environmental im- 
age basically makes the 
object look like a 
strong chrome ball, 
while the Zebra image 
produces vertical lines 
which then when the 
object is being ro- 
tated will move 
over the surface. 
Any uneven parts in 
that Zebra pattern 
will identify a prob- 
lem with the geom- 

visible highlight. This is why the mirror scenes have 
light meshes to generate those types of specular high- 
light reflections. With the lights having their specular 
value activated, the highlights would conflict with the 
rendered highlights of the material. 

Hemi Light No Specular 

GLSL Preview showing distortions Turntable Setup with Hemi Lights 


Zebra Image Texture 

Personally, I prefer using the Hemi light approach. I use 
two opposite facing hemi lights. The top one is 
stronger and functions as the main light, while the sec- 
ond one can be used as a fill light and has a much 
lower light energy. Both lights have their specular func- 
tion disabled and only add a little of additional diffuse 
value to the scene. The material illumination and high- 
lights are already done with the pre-rendered material. 
Again, realistic light reflections are not equal to the 
specular light shaders we are used to. In nature the re- 
flection of the light source is also the the shape of the 

Hair Dryer Blue 

Hair Dryer Red 

Hair Dryer Red Texture 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Product Visualization 


l L3iv*iftt J Kgr : ;.>;i)n , I Tangent ■J I j 

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Because of GLSL, I can instantly see how the diffuse 
value of the light is affecting my scene and I do not 
need to create a rough preview rendering. Colors you 
see with GLSL are colors you will also get rendered. 

Another also very attractive and flexible approach, is to 
use the emit value for the applied materials, but set it 
rather low so the materials seems to just get a little bit 
of indirect illumination and then create with contrast 
rich lights, dramatic light setups. 

GLSL can also nicely preview transparent materials. The 
screen of the ear bud is UV mapped with a screen ma- 
terial which is making use of the Alpha channel affect- 
ing the final 

alpha value 

of my mate- 


rial. The 

screen mate- 

rial together 

with another 

tal image of 
a chrome 


surface pro- 


duces the 


result of 

those metal 



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Apple Earbuds Rendering - Time : 4 Seconds 

Screen Texture 


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The presented rendering of the Apple ear bud only 
takes roughly 4 seconds. This is very important for any 
sort of animation. Because Blender comes, of course, 
with a rich set of animation tools, it is also possible to 
generate some stunning looking product visualizations 
in a very short amount of time. 

The animations can include exploded views, best done 
with approximate ambient occlusion, light value 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Product Visualization 


animations like lights turning on and off, and of course 
simple camera path animations showing the product 
on a turn table. 

Of course, is this not a substitute for full fledged Global 
Illumination rendering approaches. However where 
time is tight and results need to be communicative 
rather than realistic, the combination of tools Blender 
offers are a great time saver. 

4 Conclusion: 

In this presentation, I only covered the basic require- 
ments for this work flow. With the progression of the 
GLSL shader development, more possibilities might be- 
come available. Currently GLSL can only show texture 
images by using UV and flat mapping excluding cube- 
clipping, which also limits this tool ability to preview in 
real-time graphic style elements because they cannot 
be projected onto the object by utilizing the empty as a 

However what we have currently is also probably not 
the final stage of GLSL. 

So stay tuned ■ 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Iris Texture in The GIMP 



In this Gimp tutorial I am going to show 
you how to create a nice eye/iris texture 
from scratch. In writing this tutorial, I 
used Gimp 2.4, but since it only uses ba- 
sic filters and tools, any version of the 
Gimp should work. 


Create a new image... 

Dimensions: I024px by I024px 

Rename the base layer to "Pinched". 

Add transparency... 

Layer -> Transparency -> Add Alpha Channel 

Apply "Solid Noise" filter... 

Filters -> Render -> 
Solid Noise 

Check: "Randomize" 

Detail: 15 



• Apply multiple "Difference Cloud" filters 

• Filters -> Render -> Difference Clouds 

• Check: "Randomize" 

• Detail: 15 

• X&Y Size: 4.0 

• Repeat filter [ Control + f 

• Repeat 5-8 times 


• Apply multiple "Pinch" 

• Filters -> Distorts -> Whirl 
and Pinch 

• Whirl angle: 0.00 

• Pinch Amount: 0.650 

• Radius: 1.3 

• Repeat filter [ Control + f ] 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Iris Texture in The GIMP 



Ellipse select on pinched layer... 

Use "Ellipse Select" tool [ e ] 

Make a canvas sized circle... 

Click at 0,0 

hold [ Shift ] to keep 1:1 proportions 

Drag to 1024 

Shrink the selection... 

Select -> Shrink 

Shrink: 20px 

Invert selection... 

Select -> Invert 

Clear background... 

Edit -> Clear 


• Create a new layer... 

• Name: Polar Coords 

• Width/Heigth: 1024 

• Fill Type: Transparency 

• Select polar coords layer. 

• Apply stretched solid noise... 

• Filters -> Render -> Solid Noise 

• Check: Randomize 

• Detail: 15 

• X size: 16.0 

• Y size: 2.0 


• Apply polar c 
solid noise... 

coordinates to 

Filters -> Distorts -> Polar 

Circle depth %: loo.oo 

Offset Angle: 0.00 

Check: To Polar 


Move "Polar Coords" layer 
above pinched layer. 

Set "Polar Coords" layer 
mode to overlay. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Iris Texture in The GIMP 



• Adjust "Edge Ring" layer set- 
tings... ~ 


• Select the pinched layer. 

• Layer Mode: Multiply M 


• Use the "Fuzzy Select Tool" 



• Opacity: 75.0 m 


• Click in the empty space aroun 

id the circle. 



• Grow the selection... 

• Select -> Grow 



• Grow Amount: 60 pixels 

• Create a new layer 

• Feather the selection... 

• Name: Color 

• Select -> Feather 

• Width/Height: 1024 

• Feather: 80 pixels 

• Fill Type: Transparency 

• Create a new layer 

• Name: Edge Ring 

• Width/Height: 1024 

• Fill Type: Transparency 

• Select the "Edge Ring" layer. 

• Set foreground color to black. 

• Bucket fill selection with black. 

• Select None... 

• Select -> None 

• -or- 

• [ Shift + Control + a ] 

• Make "Edge Ring" the top layer. 

• Make "Color" the top layer. 

• Pick a foreground color... 

• Value and saturation don't matter. 

• "0079ff" is a nice blue. 

• Bucket fill the "Color" layer with color. 

• Adjust "Color" layer settings... 

• Mode: Color 

• Opacity: Adjust to Taste 

• -40% works well for "0079ff - 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Iris Texture in The GIMP 


Step 10 

• Select the "Pinched" layer 

• Use the "Fuzzy Select Tool" [ u ] 

• Click in the empty space around the circle. 

• Invert the Selection... 

• Select -> Invert or 

• [Control + i ] 

• Shrink the selection. 

• This determines the size of the pupil. 

• Shrink: To Taste (-280 pixels works well) 

• Feather selection... 

• Select -> Feather 

• Feather: 30.00 pixels 

• Create a new layer... 

• Name: Pupil 

• Width/Height: 1024 

• Fill Type: Transparency 

• Make "Pupil" the top layer. 

• Switch to "Pupil" Layer. 


► Set foreground color to 

► Bucket fill the selection. 

% s. 

Stepi i 

• Create a new Layer... 

• Name: Color 2 

• Width/Height: 1024 

• Fill Type: Transparency 

• Move "Color 2" layer below "Pupil" layer. 

• Select the "Color 2" layer. 

• Grow selection (the previous pupil selection).. 

• Grow: 60px 

• Pick a foreground color... 

• Value and saturation don't matter. 

• "ffddoo" is a nice gold. 

• Bucket fill the selection. 

• Select None... 

• Select -> None 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

3D WORKSHOP: Iris Texture in The GIMP 



• [ Shift + Control + a] 

• Apply "Gaussian Blur" filter... 

• Filters -> Blur -> Gaussian Blur 

• Horiz: 150.0 px 

• Vert: 150.0 px 

• Blur Method: RLE 

• Adjust "Color 2" layer settings. 

• Mode: Color 

• Opacity: To Taste 

• ~45% works well for "ffddoo - gold" 

Step 12 

• Tweak "Pinched" layer brightness 

• Depending on your colors and noise patterns 

• you may want to lighten the "Pinched" layer 

• Select "Pinched" layer. 

• Adjust 

• Colors -> Brightness-Con- 

• Brightness : To Taste 

• Contrast : To Taste (-30.0) 

Alright, now head over to the Noob_to_Pro article on 
"Creating Pixar Looking Eyes" to put this texture to use. 


Here are complete and exploded view renders ■ 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Game Art for Project Aftershock 


Game Art Overview 

Producing game art is very different 
compared to a still render or movie 
animation art. Game art has the limi- 
tation of meeting real-time require- 
ments of the graphic cards. In this 
article, we will talk about the roles 
that Blender played in producing game 
art for our racing game project known 
as Aftershock. 

Hardware Limitations 

Before we begin, we have to understand the tech- 
nology and limitations of our current generation 
graphic cards. The biggest limitation of a graphic 
card is the amount of RAM it has. In all games, de- 
velopers and artist always end up struggling over 
the ram usage. This limitation brings two important 
constraints to the artist; polygon count and tex- 
tures. The artist has to restrain themselves from 
producing high poly art assets. UV for any art con- 
tent needs to fully utilize the texture space so as to 
produce good quality texture detail in a low texture 
resolution limitation. Adding on to that, the number 
of textures and polygons in a scene has to be well 
conserved to avoid hitting the ram limit of lower 
end cards. 

Blender Technology in Games 

Blender as a whole serves as both a modeling tool 
and a game engine. This seemed to come as a win- 
ning solution for anybody who wants to make a 

However, we decided to go for a different model. 
We use Blender as the modeling tool and Ogre3D 

with our own built-in extensions with other librar- 
ies as our game engine. The reason for this is that 
we are aiming for a bigger scale game which is 
graphically intensive. The Blender Game Engine was 
never designed for such a huge scale project. It does 
not handle huge scenes well. However, it serves as a 
very good platform for simple games or prototyp- 

On the other hand, the modeling tools of blender 
work very well for game arts and is in many ways, 
on par with popular commercial counterparts. This 
has held true due to the very recent features such as 
the tangent normal map baking tool to bake high 
poly to low poly models and the sculpting tool for 
producing high poly models. In addition to that, the 
scripting technology allowed us to extend Blender 
to export blender created content into our game. 

Tying Blender with external game engines 

To get Blender models and materials out into our 
Ogre3D counterpart, we used the Ogre exporter pro- 
vided kindly by the community of Ogre3D. In addi- 
tion to that, we also wrote our own prefabs 
exporter script that helped us generate our prefab 
information from Blender into our game engine spe- 
cific prefab objects. 

Level editor 

To produce the quality of what is presented in After- 
shock, a custom editor had to be created. The rea- 
son for this was that it is not possible to build the 
whole level of such scale in Blender. Adding to that, 
as we are not using Blender as the rendering engine, 
what we see in Blender is not what we will see in 
the game. This posed a huge problem for the artists 
where iteration is required to produce good art. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Game Art for Project Aftershock 


With a level editor outside of Blender, we eliminated a 
few problems. Firstly, the artist gets to preview their art 
content in a WYSIWYG manner. They will not need to go 
back and forth with the programmer to test and check 
their art assets. This allowed them to iterate their art, 
tweak and touch up until they are satisfied with the end 

The level editor also serves as an important tool for fea- 
tures that are not covered or should not be covered by 
blender. Two good example for this are terrain editing 
and grass/bush plotting. In any typical game engine, op- 
timizations are made to keep terrain and grass render- 
ing optimal. Hence they require special data format 
which is much easier to edit and modify within the 
game engine. Another good example is the portal zone 
placement system. The Aftershock level uses portals as a 
form of optimization to cull off unnecessary meshes 
that will never get shown in a given area. However, as 
portal and zone placement is very subjective and relies a 
lot on how the scene is laid out, this is better done with 
the level editor where it's much easier to tweak and 

From the 
aspect of 
things, the 
level editor 
serves as a 
very good 
platform to 
game play 
and design 



-•Vv-..- | -v-->J^|| 

«K?§» f»S *■ 


Figure 1: A prototype level editor used in Project 

level based logic like trigger points and user interactive 
scene objects which are dependent to the game engine. 

Hence, the Level editor served as an important interme- 
diate tool to bridge our Blender art asset with the game. 


Blender is a very polished polygon modeling tool. The 
features designed were very useful and helpful in pro- 
ducing low poly art which is very important in any real- 
time environment. In our project Aftershock, we utilized 
blender as an object modeling tool. This helped us deal 
with the details of our individual objects in a practical 
manner. We are able to control the poly count individu- 
ally and produce good UV for our objects/ prefabs. In a 
typical scenario, a game level object should never ex- 
ceed the 5000 poly limit. However, as graphic cards per- 
form faster and faster, this limit will be raised further. 
Even so, in practice, an artist should always keep their 
game art's poly to be as low as possible without degrad- 
ing the art asset into an unidentifiable lump of blob. 

Materials and Textures 

Materials and textures is what makes an art alive. The 
fundamental of an art depends on the material which 
describes the shading, and the texture that defines how 
the shading works. Blender has a very good material tex- 
turing system that works very well with their internal 
renderer. However, for a high end game which requires 
custom hardware shaders such as Aftershock, Blender's 
material system falls short. To solve this problem, we 
extended the Blender material exporting solution with 
our own using the custom ID property system of Blend- 
er. That allowed us to add additional parameters to the 
limited selections of Blender materials. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Game Art for Project Aftershock 


As with any real time applications, there is a limit to the 
texture usage that we had to observe. Older cards limit 
any texture size to 2 A n (2 to the power of n). This means 
that texture size must always be in the resolution of l, 2, 
4, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024 and so on and so forth. 
Even though non-power of n textures are now techni- 
cally supported, it is still a better choice to keep them 
within this limit for optimal rendering. 

To alleviate the limited GPU ram as described in the 
overview, textures can be exported in compressed for- 
mat known as the DDS/DXT format. This format reduces 
the memory requirement in the GPU as the textures are 
stored compressed within the GPU ram itself. However, 
due to the lossy nature of the format, the texture has 
some considerably ugly artifacts that might not look 
good for certain type of textures. Even so, in typical us- 
age cases, as we had found out, the artifacts are negligi- 
ble and not very obvious. This technique is extensively 
used in many AAA games on the market today. 

Lighting and Shadow 

Lighting and shadows play an important role in Project 
Aftershock giving the city level the overall mood and 
feel, and shadows give it depth in the game. The lighting 
and shadow method which we used is split into 2 parts: 
l)Real time lighting and shadow, and ll)Baked ambient 
occlusion maps. 

Traditionally, most games use pre-rendered light maps 
which are generated either from 3d packages such as 
Blender or from the level editor itself. The lightmap is 
then assigned to all models which share the same UV 
layout and map channel (usually on the 2nd UV map 
channel on top of the diffuse map channel). 

Although generating lightmaps for individual objects 
and then including them as part of the diffuse texture in 

a single UV map channel, lightmapping is especially im- 
portant for level scenes whereby most of the textures 
used are tiled textures as well as different polygon faces 
using different materials, making the first UV channel 
unsuitable for lightmapping where the entire lightmap 
must fit into the UV map boundaries and this lightmap 
is shared with different objects, each with its own 
unique UV map layout, hence the need for a 2nd UV 
map channel specifically for the lightmap texture. 

Pre-rendered lightmap textures usually come in resolu- 
tions of 1024x1024 or 2048x2048 (must be in power of 2 
for optimum memory usage) for an entire level, depend- 
ing on the game's target hardware limitations. Graphic 
cards with greater amount of RAM would be able to use 
higher resolution lightmap textures. Generating light- 
maps with radiosity effects is slow and time consuming 
where the lighting artist has to wait for the level editor 
or 3d package to complete generating the lightmap tex- 
ture before viewing and checking it for lighting artifacts 
problems (problems such as pixelated lightmaps). 

However, as games become more and more detailed and 
complex, especially when the polygon count has in- 
creased a lot, generating lightmaps may not be a viable 
choice. Newer games such as Assassin's Creed, use real 
time lighting and shadow with baked ambient occlusion 
maps. This is because in older games the polygon count 
for the entire scene is much lower compared to today's 
levels, an older game may only have less than 50,000 
polygons whereby newer games may have 500,000 
polygons/level or more. And since we are still limited to 
1024 or 2048 resolution lightmaps squeezing 500,000 pol- 
ygons onto a single lightmap texture produces a lot of 
lighting artifacts as compared to squeezing 50,000 poly- 
gons on a single lightmap texture. 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Game Art for Project Aftershock 


If the game artist is building an entire game in a 3d 
package, unwrapping also becomes a major headache 
and is not the optimum choice for artists. Imagine un- 
wrapping 500,000 polygons for the whole level the first 
time for the diffuse texture and unwrapping again for 
the 2nd UV map channel for lighting. This would've 
taken ages to complete not to mention arranging the 
UV poly islands on the UV map channel, which would've 
been a complete nightmare for any level artist. This in 
return would make any corrective measures slow and 




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a^ r ^^ jagar^ hi 


^^^HE~ ^m 

Figure 2: Couple of building blocks in 

Blender 3D which only has 

the first map channel textures 

Therefore newer games are splitting full scene 
lighting/shadow and soft shadows(ambient occlusion) 
separately. For the Project Aftershock game, each build- 
ing and track has its own baked ambient occlusion 
lightmap, whereby scene lighting and shadow is done 
real time in the level editor which allows the artist to 
iterate and correct any problems very quickly. Here is 
how we generated the ambient occlusion maps in 

As we can see due to the lack of soft shadows around 
the building corners it currently looks flat. First create a 
new UV map channel for the textured building model 
for the lightmap texture under editing panel. 

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,_:. N 

f » 1 « ]j *. «i j 

Figure 3: Creating a new UV map channel for the ambient occlu- 
sion lightmap texture . 

Press New to create a new UV texture layer and rename 
it to "lightmap". 

Make sure while still in the 
lightmap texture channel 
press the [TAB] key to go 
into edit mode. The next 
step is to triangulate all the 
faces. Still in edit mode se- 
lect all faces to be triangu- 
lated by pressing [a] key. 

f Center | Cer :; r N 3W 
Center Cursor 


UV Tenure 


Mako J 
New ) 




... lightmap 


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This is important because to bake lightmaps/ambient 
occlusion correctly, Blender will not be able to tell the 
shape of a polygon face orientation which may cause 
lighting artifacts problems. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Game Art for Project Aftershock 


Figure 4: Without triangulation blender will not be able to tell the 

correct face properly causing lightmap baking artifacts where 

shadows are cast on faces where they're not supposed to. 

Triangulate the selected faces by pressing [CTRL-T]keys. 
Warning: It is highly recommended that the artist is 
thoroughly satisfied with the initial object textures be- 
fore triangulation as pressing the "Join Triangles" key 
under Mesh tools tab will mess up the initial building's 
UV map should the artist decide to redo the 1st map 
channel's textures. 

Once the faces are tri- 
angulated we need to 
unwrap them. Press 
the [u] key to show the 
unwrapping list. Select 
"Unwrap (smart pro- 
jections)" to unwrap. 
This method of un- 
wrapping is selected 
because UV island dis- 
tribution is based on 
the actual polygon size 
compared to using 
"Lightmap UV pack". 

After selecting 
"Unwrap (smart pro- 
jections)" a menu will 
appear. Select "Fill 
Holes" set fill quality 
to 100, "Selected Fac- 
es" , "Area Weight", 
and set island margin 

Figure 5: Triangulated faces. 

gf ■,- BH| 


■1 mm - 


Figure 6: Unwrapped building using Unwrap (Smart Projections) 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Game Art for Project Aftershock 


Still under the UV/lmage Editor window ,go to 
lmage»New to create a new texture image for the light- 
map. Now we are going to set our ambient occlusion 
settings. Go to "World buttons" panel and enable Ambi- 
ent Occlusion. Here the artist can adjust the ambient 
occlusion settings to fit their model. 

; :» 

Go to Scene (Flo) panel to begin rendering the ambient 
occlusion lightmap texture. Under "Bake" tab, select 
Ambient Occlusion and Normalized and click on BAKE to 
begin rendering. 

Once the 
ambient oc- 
render is 
complete we 
need to save 
the new im- 
age file 
within the 
Editor win- 

Figure 7: This is how the building model looks like with ambient oc- 
clusion map 

After saving the new ambi- 
ent occlusion map it is now 
time to clean up any render- 
ing artifacts. 

To fix the artifacts, go to Tex- 
ture Paint Mode and using 
the "Soften" brush, 
paint along the jag- 
ged edges to blur 
the problem areas. 
This produces a 
much softer look 
and feel for the soft 
shadows. Once com- 
pleted, save the cor- 
rected ambient 
occlusion lightmap 

And finally, this is how the building model looks like in 
the level editor with both diffuse map channel and light- 
map texture channel combined together. 



Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Game Art for Project Aftershock 


Figure 8: Building models with ambient occlusion maps. 

Lighting and shadows are calculated real time within 
the custom built level editor. 


Modelling the vehicle craft for Project Aftershock re- 
quires both high and low polygon models where by the 
high poly models provide the extra details through nor- 
mal maps and ambient occlusion maps. However we 
will write an additional tip for generating proper nor- 
mals and ambient occlusion maps. 

First of we will require both a high poly model and a 
low poly model. Whether the high polygon model is 
built first and then optimized to a lower polygon ver- 
sion or vice versa is entirely up to the artist. For this 
craft's pic, the low polygon model is approximately 8000 

Figure 9: Final building models with ambient occlusion lightmap 
and real time lighting and shadow. 

After that we will then make sure the high and low pol- 
ygon version are exactly in the same position to bake 
the normals and ambient occlusion maps from the high 
polygon model to the low polygon model. After that we 
will need to unwrap the vehicle model and create a new 
image to bake to. 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Game Art for Project Aftershock 


Figure 10: Low and High poly models together with unwrapped 
low polygon model 

The next step is to create a copy of the low polygon 
model. The reason for doing so is that the low polygon 
model which has the same position with the high poly- 
gon model will act as a "cage" similar to the projection 
modifier in 3ds max. 

At this point of time we have 2 low polygon models( l 
temporary "cage" model and l to be used in game) and l 
high polygon model. 

This cage is particularly useful in modifying only certain 
parts of the low polygon mesh to fit the high polygon 
mesh since Blender adjusts the baking distance on the 
overall low polygon model. 

Next step is to readjust the vertices or faces of the low 
polygon model to cover as much of the high polygon 
model as possible. 

Once this step is done we can then proceed to baking 
normals and ambient occlusion texture maps for our 
low polygon cage model. To do that, select both the 
high polygon model and low polygon model (with the 
low polygon model as the active object), go to SCENE 
(Fl0)=>Bake (Normals or Ambient Occlusion) with 
"Selected to Active" option turned on. Once we have 
completed generating our normals and ambient occlu- 
sion maps. Re assign them to the first low poly model 
and delete the temporary "cage" model and that's it! ■ 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Cricket and Friends See a Comet! 



The series of images that I created for 
"Cricket and Friends See a Comet!" 
represents my first effort at 3d charac- 
ter creation. During the last year of my 
Fine Arts program at the University of 
Wisconsin - Eau Claire, a professor 
from the Astronomy/Physics depart- 
ment asked me if I would be inter- 
ested in making some characters for a 
children's show at the university plan- 
etarium. The show's visual elements would include 
five woodland animals and very minimal props. 
Since the characters would be on pure black back- 
grounds, to superimpose cleanly on the dark plane- 
tarium dome, there was no need for additional 
scenery. It was a great opportunity for me to really 
dig into creating expressive and flexible characters 
from scratch! 

Since this is more of a showcase than "how-to", 
let's just look through the characters and talk about 
aspects of their design... 


Cricket presented a 
number of unique design 
challenges. She is by far 
the smallest of the charac- 
ters and, unlike the rest (of 
them), has a rigid body 
with no fur or feathers. 
The need for the charac- 
ters to have emotive ca- 
pacity and for the image to 
have a black background 
both contribute to Cricket 
differing more than any of 

the other characters from her natural world family 
in color and body structure. 


Real crickets are black, however, as the show is to 
be projected floating on a planetarium dome (black 
sky), black equals transparent. Green with irides- 
cent analogous hues (via node based, normal angle 
color-shifting) seems to give her a strong presence 
without flattening out. For her eyes I used a compli- 
mentary color to add further visual weight. 


In order to be recognizable as a cricket, the charac- 
ter needs very thin limbs, which combined with a 
rigid body mass creates a very dull character profile. 
To combat this, I exaggerated the "spiky" aspects of 
her limbs and really maxed-out her antennas. These 
few adjustments to the basic body shape, empha- 
size the angle and direction of arms, legs, and head 
giving each pose a much more recognizable profile. 


Squirrel was a lot of fun. Her lanky and flexible body 
made her easy to form into 
interesting poses. One 
problem that I encoun- 
tered was scale discrep- 
ancy between characters. 
Squirrels are clearly 
smaller than foxes and 
bears, but since the size of 
the final projected images 
is not very large, she could 
not actually be much 
smaller. To make her feel 
smaller I made her eyes 
very large relative to the 
size of her head. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Cricket and Friends See a Comet! 


This, combined with long, thin limbs, turned out to be 
very effective at making her seem less massive without 
actually making the character smaller. 


Fox has the most varied 
color patterns. In order to 
get precise color place- 
ment and smooth blend- 
ing across UV seams, I did 
most of the painting di- 
rectly on the model rather 
than in The Gimp or the 
UV/lmage window. She 
also (along with Bear) has 
a more complete mouth 
than the other characters 
including lips, a set of 
teeth, a curve deformed 
tongue and fully modeled 


By far the most challeng- 
ing aspect of Owl was the 
feathers. I ended up using 
four particle systems for 
all the feathers except the 
longer wing feathers. I 
used weight painted ver- 
tex groups to define parti- 
cle densities for separate 
white and brown particle 
systems. This worked very 
well for creating Owl's 
"speckled" areas and color 
gradients. For more con- 

trol in troublesome areas, I needed to create a second 
set of brown and white particle systems to manually 
place individual feathers around the eyes, "ears," and 
beak. The wing feathers are individually placed meshes. 
Each of the two sets of wing feathers has a mesh de- 
form modifier to allow grasping and gesturing with the 


Bear presented the oppo- 
site problem from squirrel. 
He needs to appear massive 
without being so. To make 
him feel as large as possible 
I gave him small eyes rela- 
tive to his head size, and 
very massive limbs and 
body. Having such thick 
arms, legs, and body made 
him a challenge to rig and 
pose. The mesh deform 
modifier was a lifesaver! 

The inspiration for the de- 
sign of his head came from 
a sketch sheet at I 
highly recommend that anyone looking for some good 
character inspiration check out the site and even buy 
the CreatureBox Volume One Sketchbook. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Cricket and Friends See a Comet! 


The images for the show are now all complete and 
passed on to the planetarium. I have learned a LOT over 
the course of the project and the final content has been 
very positively received by the cooperating faculty mem- 
bers and script author. I have also discussed open licens- 
ing with the others involved and think that there would 
be no resistance to sharing the show with any other in- 
terested planetariums under a creative commons li- 

This project benefited a great deal from the Peach 
Project. The improvements to the fur/particle system 
and the creation of the mesh deform modifier made the 
fur and rigging far easier and more powerful. The ac- 
companying blog posts, documentation, and source files 
made learning how to implement all the features possi- 
ble! Thank you to the Blender developers for creating 
such an excellent program. After working with XSI in the 
university's 3d classes, it was a relief to switch to Blend- 
er's (non-modal) interface. And now 
that I have graduated, I would no 
longer even have access to 3d soft- 
ware if not for Blender! ■ 

Beojanjir) Scbran) 

Benjamin Schram is an artist from Wisconsin 
- USA. He graduated in 2008 with a BFA in 
drawing from the University of Wisconsin - 
Eau Claire. Currently he works freelance, do- 
ing 3d and Illustration. 

CrowLine Studio 



Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING Or! The Process of Modelling and Rigging a Mechanical Model 



I have been working on this model for 
some time now and rather than re- 
peating the usual step by step tutori- 
als, I have decided instead to write a 
brief article. The article will detail the 
process and a few of the techniques 
used to get from the first idea to con- 
struction of a complex mechanical 
model that could be animated, to the 
finished excavator. 

As with any project the first stage is 
planning, and as this was a learning 
exercise to get to grips with Blenders animation 
tools, I had to choose a machine that had a lot of 
moving parts. The excavator fit the bill perfectly. 

Now knowing what I was going to model, it was 
time to go off and find reference materials. A set of 
plans would be useful, but unfortunately none were 
available on the usual plan repositories. However, 
the manufacturer did have some reasonable side, 
front and rear views in their pdf literature. They 

didn't exactly scale through from one view to the 
next, but a little adjustment in Gimp got them near 
enough to be used. 

Besides the plans, Google was useful for finding 
photographs, and whilst passing a near by construc- 
tion site, an excavator was parked alongside the 
fence allowing me to have a close up look at the 

Setting up plans in blender is quite a simple process, 
I usually work from three 3D views and toggle the 
active view to full screen with Ctrl-down arrow. As I 
only had a front, back and side view of the excava- 
tor, these were set up. 


IMJ;M55Jyj FMu=u |tt|l_j 

] --\^» 


To set up the views, in the 3D view header click 
View>Background Image and from the background 
Image window load the front view. To help align the 
other views drag a plane so the edges touch the ex- 
tremities of the excavator front view. In the next 3D 
window load the back image and then use the X Off- 
set, Y Offset and the Size controls in the Background 
Image window to scale and align the image to the 
edges of the plane. For the front view you will need 
to rotate the plane 90 degrees on the Z Axis and 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING Or! The Process of Modelling and Rigging a Mechanical Model 


align the image only to the top and bottom edges. 

Before I set about modelling the excavator, I thought it 
would be useful to make sure I could get it to animate. 
To do this, I simply traced the arms and buckets using 
Bezier Curves and used these as simple 2D cut-outs to 
help position the armatures. 

The pistons and cylinders used simple Track To con- 
straints with their ends parented to the respective com- 
ponent, in this case the cylinder to the arm and the 
piston to the fulcrum. The process is described really 
well in the Blender 2.3 Guide and is still relevant to the 
current versions of blender. 

It should be stressed that pivot and rotation points must 
be accurately set and aligned using Blenders Snap tools. 

The bucket movement was a little more complicated 
than a straight armature chain, requiring both ends of 3 
bones to be set to fixed locations. This was achieved by 
adding an Armature Object at the pivot point of the ful- 
crum and parenting it to the arm and snapping the 
other end 
of the 
bone to 
the pivot 
point of 
the con- 
rod. An- 
bone was 
from this 
point and 
to the 
the Con- 

necting Rod and Bucket. Then a third bone was extruded 
and snapped to the pivot point of the bucket. An empty 
was also added to the pivot point of the bucket and 
parented to the arm, so the empty would move in rela- 
tion to the arm's movement. 

The Fulcrum was parented to Bone l, the Connecting 
Rod parented to Bone 2 and the Bucket to Bone 3. The 
trick to getting this type of mechanism to work was 
adding an IK Constraint to Bone 3 with the target set to 
the empty I had placed on the Bucket pivot point, with 
Use Tail selected in the IK Constraint. 

The two unused axes of the bones were disabled in the 
Armature Bones panel, allowing the bones to only rotate 
on the one axis. To animate the bucket movement now 
only required Bone l to be rotated in Pose mode and all 
the other components would follow. 

The front mechanism used a similar setup on both the 
front bucket rotation and the top cylinder fulcrum. 

Satisfied that the process of animating this machine 
could be accomplished, it was time to start modelling. 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING Or! The Process of Modelling and Rigging a Mechanical Model 


If you have read through the 
Precision Modelling tutorials, 
you should be familiar with all 
the tools and techniques 
needed to create any mechani- 
cal models. 

In fact its even simpler to create 
a model for animation, as it 
only needs to be a representa- 
tion of the real thing and not a 
CAD perfect 3D reproduction. 

The process is therefore 
simply a matter of tracing 
areas of the model from 
the background image in 
one view and then pulling 
the vertices to align with 
the corresponding point in 
the perpendicular view. 

The job is made even eas- 
ier because the Tractor 
unit and front mechanism 
is symmetric between the 
left and right sides, so only 
one side needs to be mod- 
elled with the other being created using a Mirror Modi- 

On complex models, working component by component 
can be a lot less daunting than trying to build the whole 
model as one mesh. 

Once comfortable 
with the process 
described in the Pre- 
cision Modeling tu- 
torials, it should 
become quite 
straightforward to 
build large complex 
models from numer- 
ous components. 
However being able 
to animate those 
models means you 
need to be fairly 
strict in the way you 
name each compo- 
nent and in the 
structure of how they are parented to each other. The 
Mirror Modifier was a useful short cut for modeling, but 
can cause some problems further down the line on this 
project, so I applied the modifier once the modeling was 

With the basic model completed and all the parts 
parented to either the armature systems or the main 
body, it was time to start adding details. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING Or! The Process of Modelling and Rigging a Mechanical Model 


Moving hydraulic components need hydraulic fluid to be 
pumped through them, so this necessitated pipes and 
hoses. Pipes aren't a problem because they are static 
items in relation to the components they are attached 
to, but hoses need to flex and move with the animation. 

I experimented with a number of methods to achieve 
this, but found you could obtain a very realistic move- 
ment using just curves, hooks and empties. What's 
more, you can set the end tangency of the hose so it 
doesn't rotate at the end point. I will write the method 
up as a mini tutorial sometime in the future. 

With a few more details added, it was time to see how 
this model looked in a render. Basic materials were 
added for the paintwork and a highly reflective material 
added to the hydraulic piston to simulate the ground 
chrome material. The model was then positioned on a 
plane which was curved at the back to simulate a studio 
back drop. Two area lights were added together with a 
light behind and above the model relative to the cam- 

A basic reflection map was cre- 
ated by placing a UV sphere in- 
side a box together with a few 
props to simulate a studio flash 

The UV sphere was set to the 
maximum reflection and an im- 
age renderer of the sphere. This 
was then used as an angle map 
in Blender's world settings 

The end result was a fairly convincing image of an exca- 
vator, though, given time, the image could be improved 

This isn't the end of the excavator project; I now need to 
UV unwrap the model and add some realistic textures, 
then set the model in a construction scene. All that, 
however, is for a future date and I will post further in- 
formation here when it is completed. 

I hope you have found this run-through of the project 
useful ■ 

In order for a reflective material to look good it must 
have something to reflect. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Making of the Sun 



MakiQg of tbe Sag 

And now let's have a trip deep into the 
sun and see how it's made : 

First we have very nice photo refer- 
ences (that you can see on the animat- 

With that, half of the job was already 
done :°D , because sometimes you 
spend more time finding what you 
want to do than making it. In this case 
it was already there. With that done, 
the next thing to do was to sit down 
and do nothing, except thinking: 

Before starting a project, it's always a good thing to 
list every possibility that you might have to consider 
to get the effect you want. Think about the pros and 

the cons, 
how long 
it'll take to 
When this 
part is also 
done, you 
still have 
nothing in 
your blend- 
er, but you 
might be more advanced than the guy who started 
blending from the beginning. 

From that, I decided a few things: 

First, I will do the color in the compositing, so I can 
easily tweak colors at the last moment, and also I 
don't have to worry about colors in my texturing. 

Also, as a star is a very big object, and in the anima- 
tion we don't turn around, instead of making a 
complete 3D object, I can make it 2D/3D or a kind of 
a matte 
That al- 
lows me 
to do even 

Here you 
can see 
the final 
object in 
the 3D 

Finally, I 
decided to 

use procedural textures as much as I could, so eve- 
rything could be appended in blender, and it's non- 
destructive. At any time I can change any value. 

Then I started to look at the references images, to 
think how I will reproduce the various elements 
that form the picture of the sun. 

So now after that reflection phase, I started a test- 
ing phase, which turned out to be the final sun two 
or three days later. 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Making of the Sun 


Here are the different elements that I've made : 

For the "cloudy flames" around the sphere, instead of 
using particles, I preferred using a simple flat mesh with 
a bunch of procedural. 

Here is a link to a tutorial that covers this kind of ef- 
fects, my setup is not exactly the same, I don't use 
sticky, but the spirit of the thing is here : advancedshock 

The 2nd makes a global gradient on the surface, and has 
soft edges, that allows this material to fade with the 
previous « cloudy flames » and the 3rd makes the 
psychedelics waves on the surface. 

For the flames (the eruptions ones), I used a combo of 
modifiers on a mesh: 

lattice + subsurf + displace + curve, all this is parented to 
an armature to animate it easily. Then I make a group of 
it, make an animation of the flame (that is really slow, 
so you won't notice it in the clip) and then using dupli- 
group + timeoffset, I put other flames around the 

For the sphere, I mix various materials in the node edi 
tor that each have one function : 

1st material makes the white spots, 

Here is a link to a tutorial that explains the armature + 
hook + curve trick : to 
Rigging/The Bones-on-Curve Spine animation 

BSoD This introduction to rigging is a very good starting 
point if you want to understand and make useful rigs, 
and there are other interesting subjects in BSoD as well: 
animation, lighting, modeling, materials, principles of 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Making of the Sun 


At that point 
everything was 
ok; there 
seemed to be 
just a little 
thing missing, 
so I added this 
second big cir- 
cle, which has a 
sphere blend 
texture, that 
makes this 
lighting/ halo 
effect. And it 
fades nicely with the "cloudy-flames." 

Now it's time to animate: 

Every texture was mapped using coordinates of empty 
objects. Here is a very good tutorial that explains this, 
and if you want to learn more about procedural textur- 
ing it's a very good one: 


So to animate the textures, I've moved the empties. In 
fact, I've concluded that in this case, the slower it 
moves the better effect it gives, so maybe if you don't 
pay attention you won't see the texture moving. 

About render times : 

As I'm using a shadeless material, and there is no 
raytracing, or very much geometry, the render time is 
nice. For instance, rendering this frame (768x432) on my 
core 2 duo 6600 took less than 12 seconds. When I add 
textures and effects, I always check the rendering time; 
ideally, I want my frames to render between 10s and 
lmn. For those who still believe that a good result 
equals long rendering time, I hope that I've demon- 
strated that it's not always the case. 

To conclude: 

I hope you've enjoyed reading all this, and you've also 
learned something; even if I didn't show you exactly 
how to do it, you can see that a complex object is al- 
ways made of simpler parts. It's always a good thing to 
mix various little effects, instead of having just one big 

That's all, thank you for your attention, and keep blend- 
ing!! ■ 


Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: A Sneak Pfeek at GAME THEORY (Short) 



This Fall 2009 (hopefully) will see the 
Internet premiere of a new 2 minute 
animated CG student short called 
"Game Theory", from first-time collab- 
orators William Oglesby and myself. 
The film, to be made entirely with 
Blender, is a sci-fi fantasy that focuses 
on the climax and conclusion of a 
tense game of Chess between a young 
gifted human Chess Grandmaster who 
matches wits against a fictional Chess 
Playing Super-Computer. 

Story and Concept 

"Game Theory" is inspired first and foremost by the 
famous Man versus Machine themed Chess 
matches of the 1990's and borrows elements and 
sub-themes from these encounters. In particular, it 
borrows the image of the dapperly-dressed smart 
man pitted in piece-pushing combat with a dark, 
inanimate object constructed it seems, entirely of 
nothing but pure cold logic wrapped in steel. While 
this student project is angled as an experiment in 
first-time collaborative work using the Blender soft- 
ware, the project also aspires to explore the condi- 
tion of the proverbial Overachieving Man in the 
form of the film's protagonist. 

Writing and Inspiration 

The actual story writing for "Game Theory" started 
in June of 2008. I had always been interested in 
"Man against Machine" themed projects and found 

inspiration in particular with the matches between 
Gary Kasparov and IBM's Computers. I also drew 
upon observations of other "Kasparov-type" achiev- 
ers - particularly honor students and champion ath- 
letes - to help flesh out a story. In its final form, the 
vision is that the story will be more like a single mo- 
ment in time at the climax of a critical moment of 
the said achiever's chosen activity of excellence. 

The story was completed around July of 2008, along- 
side selection of audio samples for the student 
project. The selected audio then influenced the writ- 
ing of an actual script which was completed be- 
tween August to November of 2008 during breaks in 
my other animation project "The Surprise Attack". 

With the realization that one artist would have 
trouble achieving the entire scale of this project 
alone, William Oglesby was contacted to join "Game 
Theory", which then became a 2-man student learn- 
ing project in January of 2009. The idea was that we 
were going to learn from each other, and learn new 
things together while trying to fulfill particular de- 
mands of the film. 

Along this time, the project had taken on numerous 
"smaller inspirations", mostly from science-fiction 
films and new ideas which William had passed on 
to me. These new inspirations led to re-writes of the 
script, which began alongside early Concept Art 
which I started to create as things were finalized. 
The re-writing period finally concluded with a "near 
final" in March 2009. I say "near final" because 
nothing in this type of field is ever final anyway un- 
til you have a copy that has finished the Editing 
process. Storyboards were completed in March 2009 
based on early builds and visualizations of objects 
as they materialized from their approved descrip- 
tions in the Story and Script. 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: A Sneak Pfeek at GAME THEORY (Short) 


Project Team Members 

I had been working on building a 400-part transformable 
robot actor in Blender at the time when the inspiration 
came to write "Game Theory". I realized while working 
on the convertible robot, that projects of better scale 
and quality will not be possible in a time-bound manner 
while working alone. This led me to seek out at least 
one more teammate with which to complete the vision 
for the student project "Game Theory" as well as to pur- 
sue further learning in Blender mesh cage rigging tech- 
niques, design, modeling, animation, cinematography 
and direction while working on a "small scale narra- 

For this project, I perform the following roles: 

• Director and Animation 

• Writer (Story and Script) 

• Storyboard Artist 

• Concept Artist 

• Modeling, Texturing, and Rigging (Human Actor, 
Other Selected Elements) 

• Sound Editing 

• Film Editing and Post Production 

William Oglesby had previously been working on a mul- 
ti-layered rendition of a high-detailed London-style clock 
tower using Blender before he joined production of 
"Game Theory". William is also an experienced modeler, 
animator, computer artist, and video game programmer 
and team leader with particular knowledge in graphics 
theory, 3D physics, and game engines. 

For this project, William fulfills the following roles: 

• Visual and Special Effects 

► Physics Simulation 

► Modeling, Texturing (Sets, Props, "Monolith" Super- 

► Lighting and Other Optical Effects 

► Compositor Nodes and Post Production Effects 


I want to make it clear that while we follow a very or- 
ganized approach to making this project, this is pretty 
much a student project. It is born mostly from my per- 
sonal realization that better results for the entertain- 
ment of others and learning about Blender will not be 
attained without collaborators. Working alone has a 
tendency of slowing down the learning process, since it 
seems every time a new project is started, one has to 
start all over for every element that has not been pre- 
created. This is time-consuming, energy-consuming, and 
may result in compromises where a lone artist begins to 
"rush" elements in an attempt to learn. This is always at 
the expense of a project's finished look. 

One key objective, therefore, was to accelerate and nor- 
malize the Blender learning process, by way of collabo- 
rative group work. Aside from reducing the steep climb 
to learning, collaborative groups increase the number of 
"source imaginations" and inputs exponentially, and the 
extra hands at work promise increased depth and higher 
results for each element in a project. 

In particular, William and I intend to complete "Game 
Theory" hoping to learn about collaborative work-flows, 
organized production directory structures, use of Linked 
Groups, advanced Compositor effects, Mesh Cage rig- 
ging and animation, basic organic facial acting, working 
with physics in a short film, UV mapping, Sub-Surface 
Scattering in relation to compositor effects, 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: A Sneak Pfeek at GAME THEORY (Short) 


as well as the "soft skills" in writing, storyboarding, 
screen testing, cinematography, and basic storytelling. 

Music and Audio 

In many schools like Animation Mentor, students begin 
learning about the nuances of film animation by taking 
their music and audio from films and other professional 
samples and re-appropriating them for learning purpos- 
es. The same approach is taken here. In line with les- 
sons learned from my very first project, Music and 
Audio were selected prior to writing the Script, but after 
a basic Story and Concept had been decided upon. In a 
step up from my previous work, the Audio Track for 
"Game Theory" features some heavy editing - a title 
theme culled from a video game, and a main narrative 
audio track re-using an edited version of a background 
music track combined with free sound effects and spo- 
ken audio from a feature film that has been re-purposed 
for this student project. 

If the union of Message and Theme create the Story, 
then the union of Story, Imagination, and Temporary 
Audio create the Tone, from which a more solid Story 
and Script can be written. 

All sources have been noted and will be included in 

The Human Actor Protagonist 

The story in "Game Theory" is one of some slightly ridic- 
ulous, but somewhat serious gravity, and in that sense, I 
made a decision as early as July 2008, that the actor had 
to be of "semi-realistic" quality. This goes against the 
grain of normal student projects where Stylized Humans 
are more often used. The story called for an actor that 

was young, appeared smart or talented, and had to 
dress sharply in formal wear. 

Translating these qualities required learning about mod- 
eling, rigging, UV Mapping, Sub-Surface Scattering, and 
Shape Keys. An early proto-type for the actor can be 
spotted in "The Surprise Attack" as the cowering human 
standing on the helipad. 

Figure 1: The Human Actor in his debut role. 

Results from that initial test led to a re-working of the 
overly-complex actor rig in January 2009 to fit the actor 
into a much simpler rig that relied on a Mesh Cage De- 
form Modifier for all movement except fingers, jaw, and 
facial shape keys. 

We are, of course, under no illusions that we can create 
a photo-realistic human actor from our current skill 
level in Blender. Hence there was a conscious decision 
to mold the actor in the "Image" of a human being 
rather than a literal pain-staking Debevac-style replica- 
tion of human "Features". The model for the human ac- 
tor was based loosely on photographs of a real-life actor 
although simplifications were made to his facial geome- 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: A Sneak Pfeek at GAME THEORY (Short) 


Simplifications were also made to the hair, which is just 
a single mesh, as well as to the Shape Keys, which con- 
trol blocked off "whole expressions" where each slider, 
rather than controlling one part of the face, instead 
commands an entire facial expression from the nose up. 
Separate Shape Key Sliders control the lips to help form 
different mouth shapes and another set of Shape Keys 
control eyelids. A Jaw Bone construct controls Jaw 
movement. Currently, there are no plans to use multiple 
image maps for veins. The sub-surface scattering set- 
tings are simply applied over a texture map of the skin, 
which already includes painted-on hair, eyebrows, lips, 
and finger nails. 


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Figure 2: The "semi-realistic-but-simplified" approach. 

This takes us to probably the most important aspect of 
Pre-Production and the creation of this actor: Feedback 
and Testing. Simplification of this actor will be for 
naught if the compromise goes too far in watering 
down the intended audience perception and effect of 
the Story. Since January 2009 and ongoing into the 
present, the Actor for "Game Theory" has gone through 
a feedback cycle with focus groups (mostly women), 

who gave notes about his general appearance, which 
are then noted against the intent of the Story. Eventu- 
ally the Actor's rig and Shape Keys will be tested in a 
sample acting reel, and a screen test process will be 
completed with the set and props developed by William 
to determine if it "gels". 

The feedback cycle also has "soft" elements. During this 
process we got some feedback determining what might 
pass for "smart casual with a bit of sci-fi" with the po- 
tential audience, and then compared it to early concepts 
and Story direction. We also learned that "Taupe" was a 
fancy word in fashion for "Dark Grey Brown". 

The Human Actor for "Game Theory" also figures as our 
first project with an actor rigged using the relatively 
new Mesh Deform system of Blender. Mesh Deform was 
developed based on a Disney-Pixar solution for Harmo- 
nious Coordinates, which itself, I believe, was used as 
the rigging solution for Rhino in the movie "Bolt". It is 
in moments such as these where one has to note the 
great advances that an open source application like 
Blender can make in comparison to developments in 

Figure 3: Mesh Deform Cage in Action. 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: A Sneak Pfeek at GAME THEORY (Short) 


Originally the Actor in his previous state featured many 
control bones, as many as 8 to 10 in a shoulder alone 
with many solver constraints. The goal behind using a 
Mesh Cage was to simplify the process by weight paint- 
ing a very low poly mesh and then allowing Blender's 
Mesh Cage Modifier to intermediate the changes to a 
high-poly Actor Model. 

Having said that, the Mesh Deform system is noted to 
have a few quirks, apparently it must be the top-most 
Modifier to work error-free, and in addition there ap- 
pears to be a minimum clearance distance required be- 
tween the Mesh Cage and the Actor Mesh contained 
within it. Actor vertices too close to the cage will simply 
not respond to Mesh Cage deform. The above conditions 
apply particularly when a Subsurf Modifier is also used. 
Subsurf must be bottom-most modifier as a rule-of- 

A Successful Acting Reel and Screen Tests will most 
likely determine the end of Pre-Production for this ele- 
ment in "Game Theory" with the exception of finding 
time and resource to attempt using layered maps for 
veins, displacement, normal and bump. 

RSM-2009 MONOLITH Super-Computer 

The story in "Game Theory" would not be complete 
without its antagonist. Ironically, the story technically 
has none since it can be argued that a Super-Computer 
that plays Chess is really just a prop. The true position 
of the Monolith Super-Computer in the story of "Game 
Theory" was the subject of many discussions between 
William and I and we kind of agreed to direct the design 
in a state of limbo. The Monolith might hint it has 
"character", but ultimately will resemble a giant appli- 

If the Human Actor ascribes to the rule of Feedback, the 
Monolith, while also being subjected to test feedback, is 
a more concrete example of The Beauty of Compromise. 
In my original vision, the Monolith was just a single 

cabinet resembling a coin-operated Arcade machine. It 
is through the synergy with William that ultimately I 
was persuaded that the Monolith would be a more 
meaningful presence in "Game Theory" if it was larger 
and more immense; a representation of the great odds 
talented people like to place in front of them. The 
change called for new Concept Art which I drew in the 
space of a short time to present to William for Mode- 

ea*.^ <±*>**ff~ 

Figure 4: Early Rough Concept . 

If any of you love that Eye in the central unit, that one is 
purely William's idea. 

A similar process was taken up for the Monolith's arm 
hatch, which no longer exists in its original state; as 
well as the arm it will use to play Chess with. While no 
real-life Chess computer was ever equipped with the 
robotics to physically move the pieces itself, 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: A Sneak Pfeek at GAME THEORY (Short) 


we wanted to work in a fantasy element to "Game The- 
ory" to enhance the "mano-y-mano" nature of the Story. 

Figure 5: Rear View of Early Arm Build. 

Even as a fantasy element, the Monolith still went 
through a rigorous research phase where we studied 
and compared the aesthetic shapes and colors of vari- 
ous real-life computers, factory arm robots, including 
actual machines IBM built to play Chess against 
Kasparov. Concept Art was developed from this pool of 
research photos and William went straight to building i' 
in Blender. 


There were a few re-writes going on in Script and Story- 
board as a result of the change in size of the Monolith, 
but as we felt the Monolith's position in the Story was 
secure ,we gave ourselves the go-ahead to build it along- 
side development of the Human Actor. 

Figure 6: Monolith Super-Computer in Blender Workspace Environ- 

Other than that, the Monolith uses straight forward so- 
lutions for all its moving parts and hydraulics. It is 
mostly composed of simple rigging for the arm and 
tracking constraint solutions for other moving parts. 

Figure 7: Tubes with Tracking Solutions for the Monolith's Eye. 

Figure 6: Refined Concept Art Submitted for 3D Mod- 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: A Sneak Pfeek at GAME THEORY (Short) 


The Set 

"Game Theory" takes place in a single non-descript 
room in a non-descript location. Similar to the Monolith 
and the level of quasi-realism placed on the Human Ac- 
tor, we agreed that the Set could take that one step fur- 
ther by looking somewhat real and yet somewhat 
unreal. Last year, I conceived the room as a pure white 
space similar to Apple's TV ads. In January we tried early 
tests with a white "brick-and-mortar style" room similar 
to Sony's early Playstation 3 ads. 

Figure 8: Rear View of Early Arm Build. 

Screen tests however with the Monolith unit, showed 
that the color contrasts were too strong and we decided 
the Story was best assisted with a "neutral" room which 
was based on bunkers and other underground rooms 
such as the kind seen in films like "Panic Room", "The 
Dark Knight", and "The Day The Earth Stood Still". 

Screen-Testing ft Test Renders 

In the film "Wall Street", takeover artist Gordon Gecko 
says to his young protege that the secret of success is to 

always know the outcome beforehand. "Every battle is 
won before it is ever fought" says Gordon. That is the 
same wisdom that applies to Screen-Testing and Feed- 
back Testing. 

The challenge as with any animation project is that ulti- 
mately one needs to project an image in only two di- 
mensions combining colors, shapes, and sounds to try 
and transmit "something" to an audience. It is, frankly, 
not enough that one has modeled, textured, UV-ed, 
Mesh Cage-d, 
or completed 
some other 

The question 
is always: 
"Does it 
'work' on- 
screen? Do I 
like what I'm 

Figure 10: Early Test for Glass Chess Pieces. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: A Sneak Pfeek at GAME THEORY (Short) 


This element is that part which Blender tackles by use of 
its Internal Render Engine and Compositor Nodes and it 
is in Test Renders and Screen Testing where a Team can 
play with these settings until a Director's vision is ful- 

Every Material Setting, every Mesh, every animation so- 
lution, must be tested in an environment using the 
lighting conditions and compositor settings which are 
being prepared as elements approximating the "final 
look" of a picture. 


Assuming all modeling, texturing, and testing completes 
successfully, and so far we have been very fortunate in 
this regard, "Game Theory" is expected to go into Ani- 
mation of Final Scenes within the Next Quarter, a bit 
ahead of schedule, but that at least will give us enough 
time to deal with nasty surprises should they emerge. 

Closing Remarks 

If you like what you've read here and would like to col- 
laborate with us in the future, there's always the next 
project for us to work on together. And in keeping with 
our vision here at our little Creative Guild, each project 
prepares us for the next more ambitious project ■ 

Screen-Testing is also an exercise in objectivity and cour- 
age. It sometimes takes a personal leap of bravery to 
admit that something you have spent weeks to create 
"does not work" and has to be sent back into assembly. 
But it is sometimes in moments of rejection like these 
where a project is saved from an at times merciless au- 

It is for this reason that our Fall 2009 date remains a 
"hopeful", but this is also why William and I are very 
guarded in our approach to taking risks, limiting the 
play length to under 3 minutes and why I chose this par- 
ticular story to move forward in learning about Blender 
and collaborative projects. 

Giaocarlo Ng 


Willian) Oglesby 


Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Brazilian Open-series 


Vida Cotidiana - Episodic* 1: A Gota (Daily 
Life - Episode 1: The Drop) is a free, 
short animated film that combines tech- 
niques of hand-painted watercolor and 3D 
computer graphics. 

The film is being produced by Quadro- 
Chave, is being developed with free pro- 
grams, and is licensed under Creative Com- 

The production team is working with free 
softwares, such as Blender, Yafaray, Gimp, 
Pencil and Arbaro. 

We are working with Global 
Illumination using the Path 
Tracing method for final render. 
The resulting visuals with the 
textures occurred as planned, a 
good blend of organic painting 
and 3D computer graphics envi- 

For the first person cameras, 

we are using Voodoo Camera 

Tracker software to generate a 

natural camera movement. The movement of data 

from the camera will be imported into blender. We 

used a low-cost camera to film, because we only 

needed to capture the movement, not the image. 

This epi- 
sode is the 
of the ani- 
ries, Daily 

The Quad- 

ro-C have's 


is to bring 

the elements and events of our 
daily life and create small ani- 
mated polls. Other episodes are in 
the process of creation and organi- 
zation of ideas. As a independent 
work and open movie, in this case 
an open series, our team is always 
looking for help, any kind of sup- 
port would be good. If you are in- 
terested in participating in 
episodes, or simply from some 
event in your daily life that you 
feel is worth being portrayed, just 
contact us through the site in the 

contact section. We look forward to receiving your 


All the research results that were developed during 
the production of the episodes, as well as tutorials 
teaching how we did the animation step by step, 
will be available on dvd and launch the official web- 
site of the animation ■ 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Building Online Generators with Blender 


Figure 1 


I enjoy using Blender to make fun little 
pictures and animations for birthdays 
or holidays. I imagine I'm not the only 
one. One day I thought: wouldn't it be 
neat if you could put Blender designs 
online in an easy-to-use form, so that 
anyone (not just Blender users) could 
customize them for their own use? 
This idea slowly became a website 
called MakeSweet, and I'd like to talk 
about how it evolved and what I 
learned along the way. 

Figure 1: A selection of designs from 
MakeSweet. The designs take an image 
supplied by the user (here I used the 
Blender logo) and produce a picture or animation 
based on it. There are some soft body animations, lens 
effects, and lots of photo backdrops with 3D surfaces 
overlaid. 90% of the designs shown here are user-cre- 
ated (the rest I made). 

The world of online generators 

Online tools that help you make things are called 
generators. For example, there are generators that 
help you make buttons, write love letters, construct 
plausible excuses, and so on. Within the world of 
generators, visual effects are popular. Who wouldn't 
want to put their photo on currency, or see it on a 

When I looked around, I found there were already 
plenty of sites out there for creating visual effects. 
But I guessed that the openness of Blender might let 
me go further than other similar sites. Adapting a 

free and open source tool to new uses is much 
more pleasant than working with closed products, 
because there are fewer roadblocks to integration. 
It is also a wonderful base to build a community 
around, since it can be freely shared. So I hoped 
that, if I did it right, I could enable a community of 
generator-makers, rather than just create genera- 
tors myself. And in fact that has started to come 
together (see examples in Figure l), though in a 
form I didn't anticipate. I'll explain, but first let me 
talk about the basic technical and artistic chal- 
lenges of using Blender to make generators. 

The technical challenge 

Blender is a wonderfully adaptable program used by 
everyone from movie-makers to architects. To adapt 
it for online use, the main problem is time. It takes 
time to render pictures and animations, but on the 
internet there is a strong expectation of immediate 
response. Let's think about what properties a gener- 
ator site needs to have: 

l Fast to respond. Something cool must happen 
within seconds of a user's request. 

2 Cheap to run. The site must not cost too much to 

3 Scalable. The site must remain fast to respond 
and cheap to run as its popularity grows. Other- 
wise the only possible fates for the site would be 
to either self-destruct or remain forever obscure, 
neither of which is particularly desirable. 

To satisfy these requirements with Blender, we're 
going to need to be ruthless about baking, caching, 
and otherwise pre-computing everything we possi- 
bly can. Ideally, we would also offload as much 
computation onto users' own computers as possible 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Building Online Generators with Blender 


There is a Blender browser plug-in that can be made to 
work, but expecting users to install software in order to 
use a generator site is a bit too much to ask. The most 
practical solution is to do all the Blender work on a 
server (or set of servers) and send the results as images 
or animations to a user's browser. So we really need to 
reduce the amount of work done for each user request 
to the bare minimum. 

How far we can go with pre-computing depends on 
what kinds of user customizations we want to support. 
I decided to restrict my attention to a class of designs 
and customizations that was wide enough to allow in- 
teresting generators, but restricted enough to allow al- 
most everything to be pre-computed. The 
customizations I decided to support were the replace- 
ment of image textures with a new image of the user's 
choosing. This is a good match for user expectations 
("upload a photo and see something fun happen"). The 
designs I decided to support were those in which the 
image textures under user control do not affect geome- 
try and do not overlap. This rules out some possibilities, 
for example 3D text or displacement maps, but still 
leaves a range of useful effects, as we'll see. 

Figure 2: An animated flag design with one image texture 
under user control (the surface of the flag). Prior to online 
use, the coordinates that a test image projects to in a ren- 
dered result are probed and recorded, for each frame in the 
animation. This allows fast stills and animations to be gen- 
erated when a user supplies a photo. 

To get technical, the requirement I chose was that the 
appearance at each location in a frame of the output 
render should be a function of the appearance of at 
most one location in the input image (I'll also assume 
the function is linear or can be approximated as linear, 
although this isn't as important). Consider the flag de- 
sign in Figure 2. Here, the sky is fixed - it is not affected 
by the input image. 

The appearance at each location of the render within 
the flag's boundaries is drawn from a single location in 
the input image, although exactly which changes from 
frame to frame as the flag billows. Under these condi- 
tions, it is easy to get Blender to pre-compute how the 
output render is affected by the input image, and to 
store this mapping efficiently. 

This can be done at leisure, offline. Online, then, for 
each user request, I use a stripped-down optimized ren- 
derer I wrote called the "Mixer" (meant to sound like a 
cheap generic knock-off of "Blender") to apply this map- 
ping to the user-supplied image without needing to run 
Blender. The quality is not quite as good as Blender 
would give due to sampling issues, but with it, users 
then have a good sense of whether the generator is giv- 
ing them something they want, and can go on to make 
a high-resolution version or an animation. For a high- 
resolution result, I expect that users will be sufficiently 
motivated to be willing to wait for a few more seconds, 
so I run Blender on the server for them (at a low priority 
so as not to hurt response time for other users). 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Building Online Generators with Blender 


For animations, I generate an animated GIF produced by 
concatenating preview results; using Blender for an ani- 
mation would take a very long time, and the extra qual- 
ity of renders would not be worth much once jammed 
into a 256-color GIF palette (also, individual frame qual- 
ity matters less in a moving sequence). 

There are lots of other possible choices one could make 
to get an efficient family of generators. This is just the 
one I chose to start with, and it has worked out pretty 
well in practice. The key point is to support a wide 
enough range of effects to be interesting, but be con- 
strained enough to allow fast rendering (see Figure 3). 

Pin J 



Figure 3: For speed, MakeSweet restricts designs to cases 
where each location in the output is a function of at most 
one location in an input image. There's plenty of scope for 

creativity within the limits of what the website can quickly 
render. It is fine for the user's image to appear multiple 
times, either by having the same material on many objects 
(see top left, from a St. Patrick's day pot of gold animation) 
or by reflection (see top right, from a New Year's day ani- 
mation). Distortions are also fine (see bottom left, from a 
Valentine's animation, where the user image is seen 
through a heart-shaped lens). And transparency can work 
too (see bottom right, a pumpkin carving from a Halloween 

The artistic challenge 

So far I've just talked about the technical side of making 
generators. But all that is worth nothing without good 
art that people enjoy. The principle artistic lesson I have 
learned from working on MakeSweet is that I am not an 
artist. There is an interesting challenge in creating good 
generators with a "narrative" that users identify with. 
Here are some of the difficulties of the medium, at least 
as implemented on MakeSweet: 

• The generator must have some flexibility to accom- 
modate unknown user input. You don't control the 
whole story. 

• For animations: you have just a few seconds to tell 
the story. The longer the animations, the more CPU 
time burned producing them, and the fewer people 
will stick around to create them. 

• Resolution, frame-rate, and palette are limited 
(especially if GIF animations are used). 

Here are some styles of generator that work: 

• Simple scenes based on holidays such as Halloween, 
Valentine's Day, and so on. These occasions have a lot 
of shared cultural knowledge to build on. 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Building Online Generators with Blender 


• Scenes where people already expect to see messages 
— billboards, monitors, televisions, tattoos, flags, 
signs, etc. 

Sometimes generators fail to attract interest if they are 
not sufficiently centered on the user input, or don't re- 
ally have some root in popular culture that helps people 
grasp them instantly. For example, the heart design in 
Figure 3 is part of an elaborate animation of falling rain 
drops that turn out to be heart shaped. It ended with a 
zoom-in on a drop magnifying the sun, which had the 
user's image overlaid on it. It was intended for Valen- 
tine's day, and wasn't a complete flop, but neither was 
it a great success. People instead sought out a much 
simpler design from the previous year, an animation of a 
locket in the shape of a heart opening to show two pho- 
tographs. That animation had a much clearer narrative 
and hook for the user message. 

The community challenge 

My hope with MakeSweet is that, by solving the techni- 
cal problem of making generators, I could support peo- 
ple with actual artistic talent in their creation of 
generators online, for fun or as part of an interactive 
portfolio. I believe Blender is a great choice for this. To 
see why, let's look at the procedure I ended up using to 
make generators with Blender online: 

l First, I design an interesting .blend that does some- 
thing neat with an image texture of my son (my 
standard test image). 

21 make a short configuration file that specifies the 
image texture (or textures) that should be customiza- 
ble by the user. 

3 1 have Blender pre-compute a mapping from an input 
image (or images) to a render. 

41 upload the mapping to the website. Done! 

The first two steps require no special skills beyond a 
knowledge of Blender. And the remaining steps can be 
made fully automatic. So there's no reason why anyone 
who knows Blender shouldn't be able to make genera- 
tors. And in fact, I created a service on MakeSweet 
called the Generator Wizard for doing just this. It is in 
testing right now, and I encourage anyone interested to 
give it a try ( . 






Rotation degrees (no rntotinn)> w 

Zoom 1 100 \ Vu 

Translation ix= |o \ Va J y= |o \ Va) 

( bw q ua lilr Ies L a ndr i- 

List of all active materials -face 

Change List 

jmateriafc are added automatically to this list as you test them) 
If you intend this to be an animation, please choose frame range: 
First frame |l | Last frame 1 Thumbnail frame 1 ] | Set 

{last frame can he at most 1 DO frames after first frame) 

Add photos/words to Custom Cup graphic - about this ■■ 

Figure 4: The Generator Wizard lets you upload a .blend file 
and convert it into an online generator. For example, here 
we upload a cup model with an image texture on its sur- 
face (where the cat is), 
and what we get is a 
webpage that lets any- 
one replace that tex- 
ture with their own 
picture or words. Code 
is also provided for 
embedding the genera- 
tor on other websites. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Building Online Generators with Blender 


With the wizard, we have entered the world of 
"generators of generators" — we've made a tool that 
converts user supplied material (a .blend) into a genera- 
tor. We can push this idea further, and develop other 
generators of generators (let's call them "GOGs") with 
the following trick: the user provides parts that the site 
assembles into a .blend, and then a generator is made 
from that .blend as before. So far I've had most success 
with a "Billboard Generator of Generators." This is a 
small Flash widget that lets a user select a flat surface 

The widget does this by computing the 3D location of 
the surface and then generating a simple .blend file that 
does the necessary projection. 

Move the green screen to where you want photos/text inserted: 

hide screen 

■:am-?ra center 

Blender. The billboard generator has proven popular, 
and scenes made with it by users now dominate the 


It turns out that Blender is a great file format for ex- 
pressing visual generators. It nicely separates out the 
artistic work from the geeky integration. And on that 
geeky side, Blender is a joy to integrate, and plays very 
well with other software. MakeSweet was a lot of fun to 
put together, and has already been a lot more successful 
than I dared wish for. I hope it will help expose Blender 
to some of the vast horde of people out there who 
would love to play with 3D, but haven't yet realized that 
there's really nothing stopping them anymore. Two 
years ago, I was one of them. 



Figure 5: The Billboard COG. Users upload a photo of a bill- 
board or any other object with a flat rectangular surface, 
and then identify the corners. A .blend is then assembled 
with their photo in the background and the appropriate 3D 
plane overlaid on it. A generator can then be made. 

Users can advance by learning to apply masks for flat 
surfaces that are not rectangular (if you look closely, 
there are several examples in Figure l). For anything 
more complicated, they are nudged towards learning 

Paul Fitzpatrick 

My day job is the RobotCub humanoid robot- 
ics project, based in Genoa Italy. Our human- 
oids have completely open source hardware 
designs and software. 


Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

MAKING OF: Anti Chamber (Antechamber) 


Blender was used as a 
production tool to pro- 
duce the modelled assets for 
this entry into the inaugural 
Unearthly Challenge compe- 
tition between Game Arti- 
sans and Poly-count. The 
theme for this first chal- 
lenge was "Good v Evil"; I 
chose "evil" but went for a 
"spooky" evil which allowed 
the use of a blue / green pal- 
ette of colours rather than 
the expected red / black 

Once modelled and com- 
posed in Blender 3D, the 3D assets were then ex- 
ported as *.ase models and imported in Quake 4's 
content editor, Radiant, to be built up as a level; 
lighting, materials and effects are placed, the level 
compiled and then loaded into Quake 4 itself as a 
custom single player map. Textures were photo- 
sourced and normal maps generated using Crazy- 

Tools used 

• Blender 3D (V2.45) 

• Corel Photopaint 

• CrazyBump 

• Quake 4 

• Digital camera 

Read the full post-mortem here: 
bin/ikonboard.cgi?act=ST:f=3:t=80 ■ 

Kei) Beyer ('kat') 

Web site - 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

ARTICLE! BioBlendcr. Molecular animation and scientific representation 



If we all are alive, it's because we have 
unnumbered nano-machines that work 
inside our cells; these machines, through 
an unbelievable network of reactions, 
make us breathe, walk, think, eat and all 
other things told and untold. 

At the nanoscopic level (where the unit 
of measurement is one billionth of a me- 
ter, io- 9 ), most life forms, including 
plants and bacteria, are similar and 
beautiful. That is, if you could see them. Scientists 
devolve their work to understand how all this hap- 
pens, and have gathered enough information to start 
putting together a complex picture. Actually, a mo- 
tion picture would be better... 

Blender in Biology? 

When we think of a biological lab, most of us imag- 
ine scientists in a lab-coat, pipetting and mixing a 
number of mysterious substances, possibly with 
some smoke around. While this is not unreal (except 
the smoke), modern biology also heavily counts on 
the elaboration of data extracted in the classical lab- 
oratory. This is how scientists have built databases 
of 3D coordinates of many (>50 thousand) of the 
small objects at work in the cells, a database which 
is available for use by everyone. 

We have decided to use Blender for manipulating 
these data, with the aim of showing the molecules, 
their activities, their physical and chemical proper- 
ties and the environment in which they operate. Be- 
cause not everything is known of the list above, we 

also use the Blender Game Engine as a tool for re- 

At the moment BioBlender is a collection of scripts, 
tools and procedures built on Blender 2.48a. We also 
use the experimental version SuperTexture Node and 
the recorder developed by Ash (Osobna Stranka). 

The project is by no means concluded, and we will 
be happy to consider ideas, improvements and sug- 
gestions from the very collaborative Blender commu- 
nity, to which we are grateful for the great help we 
have already received. 

This article is an introduction to our work, and will 
guide you through the microscopic world of cells 
explaining some of the steps we have made towards 
the construction of BioBlender. 

Cellular landscape 

Cells, the fundamental unit of life, contain a full mi- 
croscopic world. A good idea of the relations that 
take place within cells can be obtained by 'exploding' 
a typical cell about 10 million times, to a size with 
which we are familiar (see Table). 


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30 nm 


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3 -4 cm 

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10- 12 rr 



cou&le helix diameter 


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1,2 nm 

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1,2 cm 



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2 cm 

Virus | HIV) 

100 nm 

5-6 y human 


Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

ARTICLE! BioBlendcr. Molecular animation and scientific representation 


If we look at a medium size cell of about I0|um size, and 
we compare it to a village or to a lake, not very big but 
very deep, all internal components can be re-sized ac- 
cordingly, and we see that the nucleus, where all DNA is 
stored, can occupy up to half the volume of a cell and is 
the major internal object. Objects of this size (including 
the Endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, mito- 
chondria, chloroplasts and some other structures) can 
be seen with microscopic techniques that allow us to 
visualize their shape and (sometimes) their dynamic ac- 

It is important to note that, in contrast with the hu- 
man-size world with which we are familiar, the entire 
volume is occupied, such that it might be easier to im- 
agine a water body rather than one filled with air. Fur- 
thermore, we have to notice that gravity is irrelevant at 
this size (the mass of objects is too small to be signifi- 
cantly affected by the Earth gravity field), and that 
movements of cellular components is mostly driven by 
thermal agitation. 

The boundary of the cell, as well as the walls delimiting 
internal volumes, is made of membrane, a soft, flexible 
and (relatively) thin double-layer that mediates trans- 
port of material and information between in and out. 
This is an extremely important structure that deserves 
more detailed description, and which we have modelled 
with a complex system of particles, dynamic fields, and 
animated procedural textures. 

Going deeper and smaller, we meet nucleic acids: DNA 
and RNA. Everyone is familiar with the double helix of 
DNA, but few people realize that in relative size, if the 
diameter of the helix is 2 cm (a very thick rope or high 
tension cable), its length is 20.000 km, about half the 
Earth's circumference. DNA is packed in a very efficient 
organization that allows access to it both for retrieving 
information and for replicating it every time a cell di- 
vides. This organization is accomplished thanks to the 
involvement of proteins, the major players of cellular 

life, and the most immediate subjects of our animation 

From this overview, it should be clear that we can ob- 
serve cellular life at many different levels of focus, span- 
ning 4 or 5 orders of magnitude. However, if we can 
easily recognize the size of familiar sights (a valley or 
mountain, a building, a tree or an insect), there are no 
immediate references for attributing dimensions to ob- 
jects that we have never seen before, such as ribosomes 
and actin 

One of the tasks we face, is to provide the observers 
with clues indicating the scale of the objects in the 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

ARTICLE! BioBlendcr. Molecular animation and scientific representation 


Figure 2: Actin and Ribosome. 


Because proteins are the major characters of cellular 
life, and indeed are a major subject of scientific studies, 
we developed first a system to import them into Blend- 
er. It is necessary to describe some details of their gen- 
eral structure to understand how they are built (in 
nature and in Blender) and how they can move. 

Proteins are constructed as a linear sequence of amino 
acids, which are small assemblies of atoms that share 
some features that allow them to be linked directionally 
one after the other. There are 20 different types of 
amino acids, distinguished by their lateral parts (Side 
Chain), each composed of a specific number and con- 
nection of atoms. The linkable parts, equal for all amino 
acids, form the Main Chain. Each protein contains from 
a few hundred to a few thousand amino acids, and de- 
spite being a linear sequence, each one, immediately 
after being built, folds in space to acquire a 3D structure 
which is remarkably stable, although flexible. 

The structure of proteins can be determined experimen- 
tally, and is stored in the Protein Data Bank 
( ) as a .pdb file, which contains informa- 
tion about the sequence of the molecules, the details of 
experimental procedures to obtain the structure, and 
the list of all atoms of the protein with their XYZ coordi- 

nates. Using this information and including the chemis- 
try of amino acids (how atoms are connected), it is 
possible to build in the 3D environment the complete 
structure of any protein. 

While X-ray crystallography results in determination of 
the position of all atoms with good resolution, for a sin- 
gle conformation, other types of techniques such as Nu- 
clear Magnetic Resonance can yield a collection of 
coordinates, corresponding to a number of positions 
that the protein can assume. To obtain motion, all we 
have to do is find the path that every atom follows to go 
from one conformation to another, taking into account 
also the limitations and constraints imposed by chemis- 
try and physics. 

We describe next our work to produce such molecular 

PDB importer and animator 

Starting from our previous work in Maya, we wrote a 
program to read .pdb files and build the molecule in 
Blender. The .pdb file of interest is fetched and read line 
by line. Atoms are identified for their nature (Carbon, 
Oxygen, Nitrogen etc.), their position (X,Y Z) and the 
amino acid to which they belong. These information are 
elaborated using a library that stores atomic connec- 
tions for all amino acids. 

Through the interface, shown in Fig. 4. the user can se- 
lect the .pdb file, the atoms to be imported (main chain 
only, main and side chains, or all atoms including hydro- 
gens), the kind of object to be built (empties, spheres, 
metaballs), how many conformations and in which or- 
der to import them (the .pdb file has no specific order) 
and the transition time between different conforma- 
tions. Note that in the .pdb file every conformation is 
called MODEL. 

Atoms are instanced to spheres, the chemical bonds are 
built as rigid body joints, (or bones for IK animation) 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

ARTICLE! BioBlendcr. Molecular animation and scientific representation 


and a keyframe is assigned to every conformation in the 
list. The spheres corresponding to different atoms are 
sized according to the atomic Van der Waals radius and 
have a material for visualization and a spherical colli- 
sion radius (bounding box) for evaluation of motion in 
the Game Engine. 

Once all models of interest are imported, Blender will 
have an IPO curve for every atom (as a consequence of 
having keyframes), that interpolates directly between 
positions at subsequent conformations. However, these 
will not consider the joints (that maintain fixed distance 
between connected atoms) nor collisions. To obtain a 
trajectory that includes both these features, it is neces- 
sary to play the scene with the Game Engine. The scene 
also contains a recorder that registers the position of 
atoms during the game and inserts a key frame to the 
atomic IPOs for every frame. 

At this point the motion is set for re-playing without 
further calculations; we can retrieve the position of all 
atoms at intermediate frames (as new .pdb files) and 
use them to evaluate the quality of the structure in 
physical and chemical terms, using specialized pro- 
grams, such as VMD or SwissPDB viewer. 


Calmodulin (CaM, Fig. 5) is a small protein (148 amino 
acids, about 2.300 atoms, including hydrogens) that 
transmits the signals arriving to the cell in the form of 
free Calcium ions, and delivers information to other 
proteins, thus 
activating proc- 
esses such as 
smooth muscle 
(useful for 
breathing, food 
processing and 
blood circula- 
tion) or ring 
contraction at 
the cell divi- 
sion. The pro- 
tein is arranged 
spatially in two 
domains con- 
nected by a 
flexible linker. 

In the absence of Calcium, CaM is believed to stand 
around idling by itself. When a signal arrives, 4 calcium 
ions bind to specific spots in the two heads of Calmodu- 
lin and determine a major conformational change, ex- 
posing some amino acids with more lipophilic 
properties, which simply means that in the new form, 
CaM will attach itself to other molecules, thus transmit- 
ting the signal to these so-called effector proteins. 


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Figures: Calmodulin. 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

ARTICLE! BioBlendcr. Molecular animation and scientific representation 


Many studies have revealed the conformation of CaM in 
the empty and Calcium-bound form. We have used this 
protein as a the first model for the PDB Animator. 

Rendering chemistry and physics 

The actual aspect of objects beyond the resolution limits 
of our sight, is something that does not exist. Neverthe- 
less, it is possible to represent the space occupied by the 
atoms of the molecule, and to attribute to its surface 
visual properties to indicate some of its behavioral fea- 
tures. At nanometer scale, concepts such as color, bril- 
liance, roughness, opacity and so on have no meaning; 
instead we face properties such as pH (acidity, or proton 
concentration), electric potential, hydropathy, oxidizing 
or reducing power and others. 

Among the most relevant properties that affect molecu- 
lar behavior are the Electric Potential (EP) and the Mo- 
lecular Lipophilic Potential (MLP) that indicate the 
tendency of a sur- 

face to attract or 
repel other charged 
molecules, and the 
affinity or repul- 
siveness for water, 
respectively. In an 
effort to display the 
behaviors associ- 
ated with EP and 
MLP of the mole- 
cules, we have per- 
formed some steps 
that permit to im- 
port values in 
Blender, as schema- 
tized in Fig. 6. 

The visualization of 
the forces gener- 
ated by electric 





m H Motion elaboration 

| Render 

Figures: Calmodulin. 

charges, and exerted to the surrounding medium (water, 
which is dipolar itself, some ions and eventually other 
proteins), has been solved using a particle system, with 
sparks going from the surface out for positive values, 
and being attracted to the surface for negatives. The 
MLP is seen as a property of the surface: smooth reflec- 
tive material for lipophilic and rough, more dull for hy- 

Work in progress 

Our work has more than one scope: 

• protein motion is still a major subject of studies in 
molecular biology: if Blender can be used to provide 
an approximate solution, while avoiding extreme cal- 
culations, this might develop as a research instru- 
ment with important uses by biologists, chemists 
and other scientists. Also other cellular components 
(DNA, RNA, sugars chains, small molecules, etc.) can 
be modelled and animated using similar principles; 

• the power of images for explaining (and understand- 
ing) can be exploited in schools of all levels, from pri- 
mary to postgraduate, and can also be useful for 
exploring new hypotheses during theoretical elabora- 

• the possibility of observing complex scenes with 
many components at different scales, can enable a 
deeper understanding of cell behavior; 

• the availability of different images from inner life can 
be inspirational to artists, whose work and insights 
are important for artists themselves, scientists and 
also everyone else; 

• finally, not least, the developments we are adding to 
Blender might be interesting also for other Blender 
users, who can use them for whichever creation they 
can think about. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

ARTICLE! BioBlendcr. Molecular animation and scientific representation 


Altogether, we encourage all scientists and artists to use 
the instruments we have developed, to produce new 
images and animations, and to refer to us any problems 
or suggestions. For this purpose we have opened a blog 
in the website of one of the major scientific journals, 
Nature, which can be reached at this address. We hope 
that this blog will become a place where biologists, art- 
ists and graphic scientists meet and discuss, and con- 
tinue building BioBlender as a resource for everyone. 

Needless to say, as soon as our scripts will be presenta- 
ble and reasonably stable, we will deposit them for 
download (now we distribute them on request), and 
will record a tutorial to explain the use. 

We are grateful to the Regione Toscana, Italy, for a ma- 
jor funding that made this work possible. 

The Scientific Visualization Unit 
( ) 

• Raluca Andrei (Molecular Biology PhD student, Scuola 
Normale Superiore) 

• Marco Callieri (Informatics researcher at ISTI - CNR) 

• Maria Carlone (Biologist at IFC - CNR) 

• Claudia Caudai (Mathematician IFC - CNR) 

• Stefano Cianchetta (3D Graphic at IFC - CNR) 

• Tiziana Loni (3D Graphic artist at BBS) 

• Yuri Porozov (Biolnformatics researcher at IFC - CNR) 

• Maria Francesca Zini (Chemist and Programmer at 

• Monica Zoppe (Biologist at IFC- CNR) 

Figure 1. The surface of the cell is seen as a series of 
mobile hills, covered with different groups of proteins, 
saccharide chains and lipids. The primary pattern was 
developed (in Maya) with a system of 5 different kinds 
of particles (10.000 in total), to which various per parti- 
cle dynamic features were attributed. The system, 
which also included some boundary conditions and ran- 
dom turbulence origins, was played for 500 frames, re- 
corded and rendered giving to the particles blobby 
(metaball) features and colors as grey scale. This ren- 
dered animation was used as texture source in the 
nodes of Blender, using the Blender SuperTextureNode 
action=show&id=862 ). The image shows a screenshot of 
the final compositing pass. 

Figure 2. Example of some cellular components: Actin, 
on the left, is a medium size protein, composed of 375 
amino acids, very important for cell (and organism) mo- 
tility. Much of the protein component of animal muscle 
is actin. Ribosomes, right, are complex machines made 
up of over 30 proteins and 3 RNA components, and are 
made of two parts. They are the factory where proteins 
are constructed by linking amino acids in series, as in- 
structed by the nucleic acid mRNA. The mass of the ri- 
bosome is about 1000 times the mass of one actin 
molecule. The Images are from the Molecule of the 
Month in the PDB website, by David S. Goodsell. 

Figure 3. Amino acids 

Figure 4. PDB Animator 

A screenshot of the PDB Animator and of a detail of a 
protein in 'working mode', where atoms are all drawn 
as spheres of different colors, and the surface is not cal- 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

ARTICLE! BioBlendcr. Molecular animation and scientific representation 


Figure 5. Calmodulin 

The atomic structure and rendering of two different 
conformations of Calmodulin. On the top we see all at- 
oms, colored by atom identity (Carbon, Nitrogen Oxygen 
and Hydrogen). We use this kind of visualization to 
work on motion and to study the molecular structural 

On the left CaM is Calcium-free, and on the right, Calci- 
um-bound. Structural changes are not very large, yet the 
surface properties undergo a major transition; notice 
the shiny spots, that indicate protein activation: this is 
where it will make contact with other downstream ef- 
fector proteins, thus effectively transducing the signal 
within the cell. The rendered images are shown with 
green and yellow colors to indicate polarity of the elec- 
tric field, but during animation the colors are not neces- 
sary, because the particles travel towards or out from 
the protein surface. 

Figure 6. Protein rendering flow. 

After motion is calculated with the Game Engine, each 
frame is stored as a .pdb file, sent for checking by chem- 
ical and physical programs, and reimported back in 
Blender for rendering. 

The .pdb file is converted to .pqr, through a program 
that associates the appropriate values of partial charges 
to every atom, according to its properties as inferred 
from the .pdb information and to libraries that store 
values determined experimentally. This step is per- 
formed once for all conformations attributed to a mole- 
cule (i.e., the electric values associated to each atom do 
not change with its position). This file is sent to the mo- 
lecular program VMD, and the module APBS electrostat- 
ics is executed. This module solves the 
Poisson-Boltzmann equation on a discrete domain rep- 
resented by a grid which extends around the molecular 
surface. The molecule surface mesh is saved as a VRML 
file and the EP, calculated in each cell of the regular 

grid, is saved in a simple ASCII file (EP.dx). At the same 
time, another program is used to calculate and map the 
Molecular Lipophilic Potential, which stores data in 

These data files are used with a home made program 
(SciVis grid mapper) to map values from the grid to the 
surface, and are then stored in a new .obj file that can 
be easily read by Blender: EP values assigned to vertices 
are stored as U values, while LMP is stored in v field. 

Once the Potential data have been read inside blender 
and mapped on the surface, they are transformed in 
grey scale textures which are used for setting the grades 
of specularity and the frequency of bump (for MLP) and 
for generating the particles that indicate EP ■ 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

ARTICLE: Mystery of The BLEND 


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m working on a product that integrates 
Blender into a render pipeline by using 
the Blender command line and blend- 
files (.blend). The command line is not a 
problem as it is commonly used, but us- 
ing blend-files outside Blender is diffi- 
cult, because it is not that well 
documented. On the Internet, I've only 
found some clues about it on the Blender 
architecture pages [ref: 
hitecture/] and these were not sufficient. To really 
understand the file format, I had to go through 
Blender's source code. In this article I will describe 
the blend-file-format with a request to tool-makers 
to support blend-file. 

First I'll describe how Blender works with blend-files. 
You'll notice why the blend-file-format is not that 
well documented, as from Blender's perspective this 
is not needed. We look at the global file-structure of 
a blend-file (the file-header and file-blocks). After 
this is explained, we go deeper to the core of the 
blend-file, the DNA-structures. They hold the blue- 
prints of the blend-file and the key asset of under- 
standing blend-files. When that's done, we can use 
these DNA-structures to read information from else- 
where in the blend-file. 

In this article we'll be using the default blend-file 
from Blender 2.48, with the goal to read the output 
resolution from the Scene. The article is written to 
be programming language independent and I've 
setup a web-site for support. 

Loading and saving in Blender 

Loading and saving in Blender is very fast and 
Blender is known to have excellent downward and 
upward compatibility. Tom Roosendaal demon- 
strated that in December 2008 by loading a 1.0 blend- 
file using Blender 2.48a [ref: 
dna-rna-and-backward-compatibility/] . 

Saving complex scenes in Blender is done within sec- 
onds. Blender achieves this by saving data in mem- 
ory to disk without any transformations or 
translations. Blender only adds as file-block-headers 
to this data. A file-block-header contains clues on 
how to interpret the data. After the data, all internal 
Blender structures are stored. These structures will 
act as blue-prints when Blender loads the file. Blend- 
files can be different when stored on different hard- 
ware platforms or Blender releases. There is no effort 
taken to make blend-files binary the same. Blender 
has created the blend-files in this manner since re- 
lease l.O. Backward and upwards compatibility is not 
implemented when saving the file, this is done dur- 
ing loading. 

When Blender loads a blend-file, the DNA-structures 
are read first. Blender creates a catalog of these 
DNA-structures. Blender uses this catalog together 
with the data in the file, the internal Blender struc- 
tures of the Blender release you're using and a lot of 
transformation and translation logic to implement 
the backward and upward compatibility. In the 
source code of blender there is actually logic which 
can transform and translate every structure used by 
a Blender release to the one of the release you're us- 
ing [ref: 
2.48a. tar.gz....] The more difference between releases 
the more logic is executed. 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

ARTICLE: Mystery of The BLEND 


The blend-file-format is not well documented, as it does 
not differ from internally used structures and the file 
can really explain itself. 

Global file-structure 

Let us look at the global file-structure. A blend-file al- 
ways start with the file-header followed by file-blocks. 
The default blend file of Blender 2.48 contains more 
than 400 of these file-blocks. Each file-block has a file- 
block-header and data. This section explains how the 
global file-structure can be read. 


The first 12 bytes of every blend-file is the file-header. 
The file-header has information on Blender (version- 
number) and the PC the blend-file was saved on 
(pointer-size and endianness). This is required as all data 
inside the blend-file is ordered in that way, because no 
translation or transformation is done during saving. The 
next table describes the information in the file-header. 

reference structure 


char [71 

placed on the first byte. Example: writing the integer 
0x4A3B2ClDh, will be ordered in Big endian as 0x4Ah, 
0x3Bh, 0x2Ch, oxlDh and be ordered in little endian as 
OxlDh, 0x2Ch, 0x3Bh, 0x4Ah. 

The endianness can be different between the blend-file 
and the PC you're using. When these are different, 
Blender changes it to the byte ordering of your PC. 
Nowadays, little-endian is the most commonly used. 

The next hex-dump describes a file-header created with 
blender 2.48 on little-endian hardware with a 32 bits 
pointer length. 

oointer-size version-number 

3000 0000: 

[42 4C 45 4E 44 45 52] [5F] [76] [32 34 33] 
identifier endianness 



pointer-size char 





File identifier (always BLENDEJV) 

Size of a pointer; all pointers in the file are stored in this 

format. '-' means 4 bytes or 32 bit and '_' means 8 bytes 
or 64 bits. 

Type of byte ordering used; 
'V means big endian. 

v' means little endian and 

Version of Blender the file was created in; '248' means 
version 2.48 


File-blocks contain a file-block-header and data. The 
start of a file-block is always aligned at 4 bytes. The file- 
block-header describes the total length 
of the data, the type of information 
stored in the file-block, the number of 
items of this information and the old 
memory pointer at the moment the 
data was written to disk. Depending on 
the pointer-size stored in the file-header, 
a file-block-header can be 20 or 24 bytes 
long. The next table describes how a 
file-block-header is structured. 

Endianness addresses the way values are ordered 
in a sequence of bytes [ref:] . Blender 
supports little-endian and big-endian. In a big en- 
dian ordering, the largest part of the value is 
placed on the first byte and the lowest part of the 
value is placed on the last byte. In a little endian 
ordering, largest part of the value is placed on the 
last byte and the smallest part of the value is 

reference structure 

code char[4] 

Identifier of the file -block 




Total length of the data after the 



old memory 


Memory address the structure was 
located when written to disk 


pointer -size 

SDNA index 


Index of the SDNA structure 

8+ pointer-size 




Number of structure located in this 
file -block 



Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

ARTICLE: Mystery of The BLEND 


Code describes different types of file-blocks. The code 
determines with what logic the data must be read. 
These codes also allow fast finding of data like Library, 
Scenes, Object or Materials as they all have a specific 

The size contains the total length of data after the file- 
block-header. After the data a new file-block starts. The 
last file-block in the file has code 'ENDB'. 

The old memory address contains the memory address 
when the structure was last stored. When loading the 
file the structures can be placed on different memory 
addresses. Blender updates pointers to these structures 
to the new memory addresses. 

preted as described in this section. In a blend-file cre- 
ated with Blender 2.48a this section is 43468 bytes long 
and contains 309 structures. These structures can be 
described as C-structures. They can hold fields, arrays 
and pointers to other structures, just like a normal C- 

structure Scene { 

ID id; // 52 bytes long (ID is different a structure) 

Object *camera; // 4 bytes long (pointer to an Object structure) 

World *world; // 4 bytes long (pointer to a World structure} 

float cursor[3] ; // 12 bytes long (array of 3 floats) 

3GGG 4420: [53 43 QG Q0] [60 05 00 00] [A0 2F 04 0A] [8B 00 00 00] 
3000 4430: [01 00 00 00] [xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx 


xxxx xxxx xxxx 

The next section describes how this 
information is ordered in the data of 
the 'DNA1' file-block. 

SDNA index contains the index in the DNA structures to 
be used when reading this file-block-data. More infor- 
mation about this subject will be explained in the Read- 
ing scene information section. 

Count tells how many elements of the specific SDNA 
structure can be found in the data. 

The next section is an example of a file-block-header. 
The code 'SC'+Oxooh identifies that it is a Scene. Size of 
the data is 1376 bytes (0x05h X 256 + 0x60h = 1280 + 96); 
the old pointer is oxoA042FAoh and the SDNA index is 
139 (8 X 16 + 11). The section contains a single scene. Be- 
fore we can interpreted the data of this file-block we 
first have to read the DNA structures in the file. The sec- 
tion structure DNA will show how to do that. 

Structure DNA 

Structure DNA is stored in a file-block with code 'DNAl'. 
It can be just before the 'ENDB' file-block. It contains all 
internal structures of the Blender release the file was 
created in. The data in this file-block must be inter- 

repeat condition name type length description 












Number of names follows 





Zero terminating string of name, 
also contains pointer and simple 
array definitions (e.g. 




'TYPE' this field is aligned at 4 




Number of types follows 

for (# types) 




Zero terminating string of type 
(e.g. ■inUO) 




TLEN' this field is aligned at 4 

for (# types) 




Length in bytes of type (e.g. 4) 




"STRC this field is aligned at 4 




Number of structures follows 






Index in types containing the 
name of the structure 




Number of fields in this structure 


field type 



Index in type 

for end 

for end 

field name 



Index in name 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

ARTICLE: Mystery of The BLEND 


As you can see, the structures are stored in 4 arrays: 
names, types, lengths and structures. Every structure 
also contains an array of fields. A field is the combina- 
tion of a type and a name. From this information a cata- 
log of all structures can be constructed. The names are 
stored as how a C-developer defines them. This means 
that the name also defines pointers and arrays. (When a 
name starts with '*' it is used as a pointer, when the 
name contains for example '[3]' it is used as a array of 3 
long.) In the types, you'll find simple-types (like: 
'integer', 'char', 'float'), but also complex-types like 
'Scene' and 'MetaBall'. 'TLEN' part describes the length 
of the types. A 'char' is l byte, an 'integer' is 4 bytes and 
a 'Scene' is 1376 bytes long. 

The first field in the Scene-structure is of type 'ID' with 
the name 'id'. Inside the list of DNA structures there is a 
structure defined for type 'ID' (structure index 17). The 
first field in this structure has type 'void' and name 
'*next. Looking in the structure list there is no structure 
defined for type 'void'. It is a simple type and therefore 
the data should be read. '*next describes a pointer. The 
first 4 bytes of the data can be mapped to 'id. next'. Us- 
ing this method we'll map a structure to its data. If we 
want to read a specific field we know at what offset in 
the data it is located and how much space it takes. 

The next table shows the output of this flattening proc- 
ess for some parts of the Scene-structure. Not all rows 
are described in the table as there is a lot of information 

•Note: While reading the DNA you'll will come across 
some strange names like '(*doit)()'. These are method 
pointers and Blender updates them to the correct meth- 

n a Scene-structure. 

reference structure type name offset size description 

id. next 





Refers to the next 

• Note: The fields 'type identifier', 'length identifier' and 
'structure identifier' are aligned at 4 bytes. 







Refers to the previous 







The DNA structures inside a Blender 2.48 blend-file can 

id. lib 






be found at 
sdna.html. If we understand the DNA part of the file it is 
now possible to read information from other parts file- 
blocks. The next section will tell us how. 

id. name 






'SC'+the name of the 

scene as displayed in 

id. us 






id. flag 






Reading scene information 

id. icon id 



icon id 



id. properties 






Let us look at the file-block we have seen earlier. The 




* camera 



Pointer to the current 


code is 'SC'+Oxooh and the SDNA index is 139. The 139th 
structure in the DNA is a structure of type 'Scene'. The 







Pointer to the current 

associated type ('Scene') has the length of 1376 bytes. 
This is exact the same length as the data in the file- 
block. We can map the Scene-structure on the data of 
the file-blocks. But before we can do that, we have to 
flattpn thp Srpnp-^tnirtnrp 







Pointer to the current 

Skipped rows 







Start frame of the 








End frame of the scene 

Skipped rows 

r.xsch RenderData short xsch 



X-resolution of the 
output when rendered 
at 100% 

Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

ARTICLE: Mystery of The BLEND 









Render Data 





Y- resolution of the 
output when rendered 
at 100% 


Render Data 





Number of x-part the 
renderer uses 


Render Data 


y parts 



Number of y-part the 
Tenderer uses 

Skipped rows 

sculptdata . ax is lock 


cl Mr- 

ax is lock 



sculptdata. pad 






frame step 












We can now read the X and Y resolution of the Scene. 
The X-resolution is located on offset 326 of the file- 
block-data and must be read as a short. The Y-resolution 
is located on offset 328 and is also a short. 

•Note: An array of chars can mean 2 things. The field 
contains readable text or it contains an array of flags 
(not humanly readable). 

• Note: A file-block containing a list refers to the DNA 
structure and has a count larger than l. For example 
Vertexes and Faces are stored in this way. 

Next steps 

The implementation of saving in Blender is easy, but 
loading is difficult. When implementing loading and sav- 
ing blend-files in a custom tool the difficulty is the op- 
posite. In a custom tool loading a blend-file is easy, and 
saving a blend-file is difficult. If you want to save blend- 
files I suggest to start with understanding the the global 
file structure and parsing the DNA section of the file. 
After this is done it should be easy to read information 
from existing blend files like scene data, materials and 
meshes. When you feel familiar with this you can start 
creating blend-libraries using the internal Blender struc- 
tures of a specific release. If you don't want to dive into 
the Blender source code you can find them all at . 

There is a feature request on supporting an 
XML based import/export system in Blender. I 
don't support the request, but it is interesting 
to look at how this can be implemented. An 
XML export can be implemented with low ef- 
fort as an XSD can be used as DNA structures 
and the data can be written into XML [see 
to download JAVA example including source 
code]. Implementing an XML import system 
uses a lot of memory and CPU. If you really 
want to implement it, I expect that the easiest 
way is to convert the XML-file back to a normal blend- 
file and then load it using the current implementation. 
One real drawback is that parsing a XML based blend-file 
uses a lot of memory and CPU and the files can become 
very large. 

At this moment I'm using this information in an auto- 
mated render pipeline. The render pipeline is build 
around a web-server and SVN. When an artist commits 
a new blend-file in SVN, it is picked up by the web- 
server and it will extract resolutions, frames scenes and 
libraries from the blend-file. This informa- 
tion is matched with the other files in 
SVN and the blend-file will be placed in 
the render pipeline ■ 

Jeroei) Bakker 

Jeroen (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 33 
years old) worked as coder in the demo scene. He is inter- 
ested in open source and 3d animations. At the moment he 
is working on products supporting impact analysis and 
change management around a fully automated render pipe- 


Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

Kl?OwHow: Creating Motion Pictures with Blender 


Deep within the 
bowels of Blend- 
er, hidden be- 
hind the facade of a 3D 
modeler, animation 
system, game engine, and other arcane compo- 
nents, are two other aspects often overlooked. The 
Sequencer and Compositor are perhaps two of the 
most underrated and often invisible aspects of the 
wonderful tool known as Blender. 

The following process assumes that you have an 
intermediate knowledge of Blender. It focuses pri- 
marily on the work-flow of motion picture produc- 
tion as opposed to the technical details of 
keystrokes and menu selections. It is also aimed pri- 
marily at working on the first half of motion picture 
work - the editing. Finishing and effecting could 
cover an entire article unto itself, and as such, it is 
largely glossed over in this piece. 

This article was created as a result of interest gener- 
ated from a music video project. ( http://troy- 
belongs.html ) The project's author was rather 
shocked by the interest in it and the spin-off cover- 
age ( ) 

Creating Motion Pictures with 

Step One - Think about It 

Before you go out and start shooting - think. What 
do you want to explore or say? What is the tone of 
your piece? Think about your audience. Think about 
why you are creating it. 

Work within your inherent limitations. Clearly de- 
fining the 'playing field' of your creative project al- 
lows you to push your creativity to the limits and 
helps to keep focus. 

Step Two - Plan and Shoot 

If you are working on a project that features a 
score, Blender offers several useful tools to help get 
a preliminary pacing and previse into place. Using 
the timeline, you can drop markers on the fly (m) 
and label them (CTRL-m). Once you have your mark- 
ers in place, you can experiment using sketched sto- 
ryboards or like material as temporary placeholders. 
Import your image and drag / stretch it to meet the 
markers you have placed. This should help you get a 
rough idea of your project before you go out and 
shoot it. 

Once you have equipped yourself with as much in- 
formation as you feel is needed, go out and shoot. 
Experiment with certain aspects while delivering 
the content you feel you need according to your 
previse thinking. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

ARTICLE! Creating Motion Pictures with Blender 


Step Three - Get the Content 
onto Your Computer 

This isn't nearly as much of an ob- 
stacle as it has been in the past. 
Many consumer level digital cam- 
eras / portable video cameras deliver 
the material in a Quicktime wrapper 
and encoded using a codec that is 
supported by ffmpeg. To make 
things easier, locate your material 
under a single project directory. If 
you have many assets, feel free to 
subdivide the material into meaning- 
ful categories. Remember, this is 
your work-flow and should reflect 
how you work, not the way a piece 
of software will force you to work. 

Import all of your strips into the 
timeline and locate it somewhere in 
the strips view that won't impact 
your project. If you have many as- 
sets, locate them to the left of the 
time marker. This allows you to 
keep all of your assets loaded into 
Blender while keeping them out of 
the way of your working area. Use 
the name field on the clips to give 
them meaningful titles. When im- 
porting your assets, running Blender 
in a windowed mode is useful to flip 
between your file manager to pre- 
view the clips and Blender to import 

If you are shooting in HD, make cer- 
tain to proxy your work for a speed- 
ier and more responsive 
environment. To turn proxying on, 
simply select render size that is less 

than 100%. For each clip you import, 
select it and click the 'Use Proxy' 
button. Rebuilding the proxy will 
allow you to render a series of JPGs 
under your assets for each strip. 
From this point onward, Blender will 
use the appropriate proxy sequence 
for each preview size you render. 

In the end, warp the work-flow 
process to meet your needs. 

Step Four - Assemble the 
Rough Cut 

If you used the marker system 
above, you are now free to drag and 
drop your clips into their respective 
slots and evaluate their impact. 
Don't stress about small details - the 
point of the assembly is to get all of 
your key moments into place. The 
assembly is not the place to be slip- 
ping frames and tidying cuts. This is 
very much a "forest through the 
trees" phase where the net sum goal 
is to have a complete visualization 
of the project for evaluation. Try to 
limit your cutting to the soft cut 
tool (SHIFT-k), as this will permit 
you to retain all of the original se- 
quence and adjust the in and out 
points further along the production 

Once you have your project in a 
completely rough cut format, stop 
for a moment and get a coffee or 
take a break. Walk away. 

When you return, evaluate where 
you are with the project. Do you 
need to go out and shoot a key ele- 
ment? Is the project flowing along in 
a manner that is working toward the 
goal you established at Step One? Is 
there something that needs rework- 
ing from where you originally visual- 
ized it in your head? 

Using the rendering panels, render 
out a lower resolution version for 

Once you have a clear idea of the 
strengths and weaknesses for the 
entire project, make notes. How can 
you make a given area stronger? 
How can you fix a problem in an- 
other area? Focus on the project as a 
whole and fight to not get too ob- 
sessed with the minor details in a 
particular sequence. 

Step Five - Iterate and Tighten 

Keeping an eye on the whole project 
is critical at this point. Your goal 
here should be to tighten your rough 
cut down and iterate over your 
changes. If an area is relatively sta- 
ble, take this second pass as an op- 
portunity to tighten beat points and 
tighten your cuts. 

If you find yourself needing to refer 
to imported footage, use your notes 
and scrub through the strips by 
clicking and dragging on the given 
strips over in the logging/ library 
area you have established. 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

ARTICLE! Creating Motion Pictures with Blender 


This allows you to see only the given 
strip isolated in the preview win- 

Step Six - Commit Yourself 

At some point, make the decision to 
put your paintbrush down. The more 
projects you attempt, the easier this 
point will be to assess and feel com- 
fortable about. To help aid in this 
evaluation, ask yourself if you have 
touched on the goals you estab- 
lished in Step One. 

Consider this a critical moment - 
this is the point where you will no 
longer make changes. From this mo- 
ment onward, it is strictly polishing 
and tightening. 

Step Seven 

Tweak and Twid- 

This phase commences the march 
towards final cut. Slip your frames 
left and right and clean up the 
project. If you are timing to a score 
or a particular sound effect, does the 
cut point feel tight? Evaluate your 
transitions as well. Does a fade to 
black work better than a dissolve? 
Test the duration of your fades and 

Step Eight - Take a Break 

Fresh eyes are critical at this point. 
Maybe put the project away for an 
hour, a couple of hours, or possibly 

even a sleep. When you return, you 
may find greater clarity for the hard 
and gritty analysis of your editorial 

Step Nine - Final Cut 

This is a final pass that is very much 
similar to Step Seven. At this junc- 
ture you should be doing very little 
other than the odd frame shifting / 
tweaking where required. You have 
agreed at this point that you will be 
doing no further tweaking on the 
editing of your project. 

Step Ten - Finish 

If you have any effects slated for 
your project, this is where you 
would commence work on them. 
Blender's compositor is extremely 
powerful for complex effect se- 
quences, and as such, no brief sum- 
mary would do it justice here. 

You may find that you do not need 
the compositor if the sequencer ef- 
fects meet your needs. Remember, 
the goal is to produce creative work 
and in the end, the process should 
be completely insignificant as you 
work toward that goal. If the se- 
quencer's tools meet the needs of 
your project, then so be it. 

Experiment with different looks and 
evaluate according to the goals you 
established in Step One. If you find 
something interesting but are strug- 
gling to make it work with your cur- 

rent project, simply call it project 
'next' and make a mental note. 
There will always be time for an- 
other project... 

In Closing 

Motion picture work has now been 
dominated by commercial and pro- 
prietary tools. Often, there is a per- 
ception that you cannot create 
motion picture work without them. 
This piece is a challenge to every 
reader to put down the excuses and 
procrastination, pick up Blender, and 
prove that entire misconception 
wrong ■ 

Troy Jan)es Sobotka 

Troy James Sobotka started cutting 
film back when you actually had to 
cut celluloid with a blade and tape 
the two strips together. He comes 
from an era where the non linear 
editor was in its infancy. He wonders 
what it would have been to have a 
Free Software tool like Blender back 

Website: http://trov- 

Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 


by Olaf S 






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Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! 

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Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! 

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Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 



Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 


Issue 21 | Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

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Issue 21 I Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! ! 

tlpcon)ir)g Issue Tbenje' 

'Things that go bump in the Night" 

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Apr 2009 - Look What I Can Do! !